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msm ist., 1919 



PAST 1. 



THE DBGOHING OF THE K0R2AU 
INDEPENDENCE LTRISIITC- MARCH 1 



PY3NG YiKG CHHOMICLL OF THE kORSAft IW3EPiiIID23CS"OtmiBSAJfc— 
BD&IRWUKJ llAiiCti lot. 1919 
On Marcn 1st. 1919 at 1 PJ4. an outbreak by Korean people through- 
out the whole country against the Japanese rule began, and the 
Independence of Koroa from Japan was read and doolumd in a num- 
ber of 1-jrge cities at almost the some moment . This movement has 
continued unabated for more then six weeks and has gained force 
with the days which have passed. It would be idle to attempt 
any thins more at this time, than a chronicle of vrhat has actually 
•ccurred and a filing of such documents as will pro?© of value or 
interest later. Pith this purpose in mind, the missionaries in 
Pyeng Yang have contributed the material which follows. 

A smaller amount of information has been secured from persons 
(missionaries and others) dwelling in other places and whenever 
this information has been found to be accurato aad pertinent has 
been incorporated in the chronicle. But the aim has been to report 
the occurrences in Pyeng Yang and the country surrounding the some . 

In almost overy case the reports have been verified and when such 
verification has not been made note has been made of the fact. 

It is to be understood that this report is confidential. 
The contributors of the reports do not give permission for the use 
of their names. It is alco^underetood that while many have collabor- 
ated In the chronicle, this„not a joint effort but a private 
and individual report. 

The writer has no intention of taking sides in the political 
questibns involved. Nor has he a desire to become partisan even 
as between the Japanese and Koreans^ If facts presented heroin 
stem to indicate such a basis, it muct be set down to the overwhelm- 
ing force of the evidence itself. The chronicler of events as they 
are in the course of taking place can with difficulty dissociate him- 
self from the events. But so far as pccsible, the personal element 
will be kept out of the ghronicle. 
1. INDEI DHDSFCB I)jCLj.H£i). 

The Independence of iprea from Japan was simultaneously declared 
in Seoul, Pyeng Yang, Chinnampo, Syon Chun, Eonsan, and a number of 
other large cities on Saturday afternoon, Uarch 1st. 

The best account of events in Pyeng Yang for the first few days 
of March is the following written by Mr. A :- 



I'yen^yang Chosen, ioaroh lbt. 1919 

This has been & memorable day in the hi avrxy Tf ""th.ts-<wunt.ry» 

Yl Tai an^, fonner Emperor of liorea, passed a«ay recently and day^»-, ^ 

after tomorrow has beea eot as the day for the funeral. lie is to be 
burled at state expense and as a prince of the .Japanese Empire. 
The ceremonies are to be according to the Shinto rites and it. is 
reported that the Koreans are very much offended at tl.it ; - -cy rant 
the funeral to be conducted accord inj to their own nations- •> nr..ii*« 
ies. Various nunors are therefore afloat as to what is jOing to hep- 
pen at Ceoul at the tiae of the funeral. 

A few days a*;o it was annouacod that memorial serv-\C6E w. v.ld be 
held in this city in memory of the late emperor. Our- • ^s to 

be held in the coapound of the teuu^dufc (Christian _c t • . \ , 

another meeting at the oompound of the etnortist Chuuh c .1 ..aird 
one at the headquarters of the Chuado L'yo. The lat>.f . , . ' 
religious, half political organisation tbich is widely s v ruc.d chioUGh- 
otit the country. 

There has ooeu considerable suppressed excitement for ijoiie 
days auong the Loreans and wo have had various rumors that .' ? "•^•hing 
important was a oing to tahs place at that time. ' r. r !., r 0. and 
myself decided to attend the meeting anc' eee for tmtmA^-in itxx* 
was join^ on. Nr. V. of AA. also cone later and stood in sb < T.aok 
of t v e yard. v foun? the ^ovrtyirt Mil of people, ?*e eeti'tiata*! 
the crowd at about three thous^nt". Wo were shor/a Boat** "oil 
forwarO but to one slue. The pupils from all our church sc'.iools 
"•ro there and ..lso many fro^. the ^ovornmout schools. 

In front of tho eutronoo was erected a syeakoro st.'^d Mti 
around and back of this wore souted several of tho pj.3tors and of 



2 

" -fuxtra^-fffltk Xhe PrtmbjrU v.i in. r.liujrihoi.. of the city. Kcv. riis Suadu. 
paeter of the Fifth Church and moderator of tb^^ajieral, ^ »a « -i i hljr 

—a* speakinj 'hen I entered. Pastor llan^-, Lyuchan of the Fourth 
Sburch had already spoken reviewing the life history of the lato 
emperor. After 7 in 'undu had finished speaking he said that they 
would now sing the doxology and that the benediction 7/ould bo pron- 
ounced and tfcit would end the i tentorial part of the service but request- 
ed the i -oplo to remain seated as there were some other things to 
be done . 

jJT.^r the benediction had been pronounced ..i— Cuudu read 
two past,ajoi of Scripture as follows : 1 Pet. 3:13-17 und Hon.i*:3. 
it was evident frou his iato.iatiou as ho read these v/rods that 
something serious vras on the docket. Thou Chung Ileun, a graduate 
of the College and now helper in the Fourth Church, tool; the plat- 
form and said he had an important co.Ljunication to read. He said it 
was the happiest und proudest day of his life and tho he dies to- 
morrow he could not help but read it. There was a great cheer went 
up from the aycience. lie then proceeded to read what was virtually 
a declaration of independence of the uorean people. After he had 
finished another man took the floor and explained just what the 
people were expected to do saying that nothing of an unlawful na- 
ture was to be permitted in tho least but that the people were to 
follow the instructions given and make no resistance to the author- 
ities nor attack The Japanese people or officials. anj Jyuchan 
then addressed the />ocrile relative to the au'ojuct of national in- 
dependence, hen he had fi.ilsiieu liOue uen ca_e Aut of tttt ouilu- 
iuj buai-i^ armloads of s-jnll . orcan fle,_fc v/hica they passed o..t 
to tho people A lar_o ..ore An fla_ »rae then fastened to the r/all 
back of the speakers' st \ad and then tho crowd wont 'ild ihovting 



3 

"i-anaoi", the Korean for Hurrah.,- .arwL-TOVln£_th£L_fla^s , It wae tlwut-'"' 
explained to theu that they were all to form in pmooe&lnn~An4._pa- 
rade the streets waving the flajs and saying nothing tout "liansoi, 
anoei 

Just then the crowd parted mJ in waited n company of policemen, 
fiome Japanese and aomc "oroan and all under the command of an officer. 
The crowd was commanded by the leaders to remain perfectly quiet and 
it did to. i'he police thou auioa the people- gathering up all 

the fla^a. At first some of the aehool boys were inclined to resist 
but they were exhorted by the leaders to jive up the flags to the 
officers. They looked the crowd ovezfor a wh:..U and seamed to be 
meditating what to do. Theu they called tho leaders into the build- 
ing, who eoon came out again aad M&ed tJso - rove io quietly disperse 
but there was no ration of the crowd i.-> "hat d: ir otiou and they 
remained still. After an interval BOM ci.e e^so exhorted them to 
leave but in vain. After half an hour or so the cL»ief of police 

asked Ur . to try to dismisu the crowd enc> he preronted the 

request of tho shief to the poople and said it would be the part of 
wisdom for them to disperse. The police of flora then all left and 
I sujgoeted that we set u good example by ourtelvue leaving. So we 
left and the cro*'d coranencod to follow us. We started dowu the hill 
to the main street of tho city to see what '.7y coiild see. Wc found tho 
street full of people auu all the shop -.dudowe and doors cloaod tij^ht. 
u.a we came in s-i^ht all tho people fCMTOd their fla^t, a*d shouted 
•';.ansoi ; . Presently wo looked behind us aud -'ound that thj crowd 
fro.j the school compound was following and «,h-t vo woro loading the 
proco8. .'on. I suggested that it weuJd not bo advisable for us to bo 
seen loading a procos: ion of would-bo-ini'opendoatiste down the main 
street of tho city and that '-o had hotter ahy off into one ofjthe 



4 

illo/c and make our disappearance. Wo did so and while the cro 4 
was still oho ring us wo '-ont up tho hill pact thy fourth Church 
ind cmuu out tho '■ est Gate street aud thence home. Lt> we puboea a 
•.olico at itiou ne notioud that tho police had arrested two women 
.nd while they were telephoning for instructions the women v/ero 
Joining tho oro»fd outcido in shotting " ..autoi" . 

At about .iix o'clock uong ;:yuohau, who is ev associate pastor 
at tho fourth Church, came to bo© me, 1 was rather surprised that 
he had not boon arrected and told him uo . do said that they all 
expected to he arrested before the night was over, and had all gone 
into the business being confident that such would be the case and 
willing to abide by the rouultu. 

I aeked him who the loadoru in thic uovomcat were and he said 
that leading members of the Chrietiuu Church and the Chundo K/o 
though*, this was a favorable tine to speak out their convictions 
about national indepondencc and *rhilo the Teace Conference was 'in 
session at Jarit; they wanted to havo their own cause preuc-utfed and 
hoped th-^t it "wild rosult in their obtainins their freedom from 
the oppros&iv* yoke icnoecd upon then hy tho Japanese Toveraaoat, 
ile asked rae my opiuion of the ..loveme-nt md ] told him th.it while I 
could neither blauo nor prulso tnom 1 could uot a^lj.* out ad-iire 
their courage. 1 felt that tho movoa-ui, was fraught wiui vi>ry 
grave peril to tho church and to tho nation. U« said that :*i Leung- 
heun, principal of the O-saa school in the northern province had 
been do?.; hero a fow wf ho ago at tho tiae of our ' inter class .ind 
had presented the matter to tho church loadort here ad sc.vrod 
their cooperation. 

i'he declaration "hieh wat> read at th_ meeting thic afternoon 



Sxt.4 

and copies of whioh had 'been circulated all over the city by school 
children while tho meoting3 were being hold had been drawn up in 
Seoul and signed hy thirty three aen, including Christian pastors 
and other officers of the Pro kbyte rian and Methodist ohurches and 
u1«a jnejnbei"© nf t.he f-hundn Kyo and a i^ew other prominent men. 

Sunday. March 2nd. 

About midnight last night Iff. 3-. was called to the police 
office and told that church services would not be permitted today. 
VJe had anticipated that this step would be taken and so were not 
surprised. We had a meeting of the noa of » the station this 

norning and felt that all that we could do was to convey to the various 
churches the police order. So various ones of us went to tho 
churches to impart this information. On the way to the Fourth 
Church I learned that there was a guard of Boldiers at the Central 
Church and later learned that there MM a gward at the la*ge lieth* 

cdist Church also but none at the other amallcr churches. There 
i"as not even a policeman in eight at the Fourth Church. I notified 
i-he people that there would be no services that Hi day. On inquiring 
cb..ut Pastor Kong I was told that he had been arrested at about 
six o'clock this morning. Batdr I learned that all the others 
v.ho hat, been leaders in tho mooting of yesterday had also boen 
arrested. 

Tastor Ell Sunju of the Central Church had gone to Seoul 
a few days ago to Join tho others whose names wore signed to the 
declaration and it was said that they were all to go in a UoUy to 
the Governor General and present the declaration. I have learned 
s-ince that they did not go to tho Governor General but held a meeting 
in one of the parks la Seoul, attended by a great crowd v/here 



puator liil ana nr. Son, head of Jio Chundo kyx "Wore the chief bpoukerj: . 
Thoy (tho loaders) then all retired to a restaurant where they 
ordered a big dinner and telephoned to the police where thoy were. 

At the end of the dinner the police sent automobiles and escorted 
thea to jail where they now are. 

I net Mr. '3-. on the street and together we talked up over the hill 
past the :«ethodiat Church where we saw the guard of soldiers and them 
down to the South Sate Church where there were no soldiers and 
every thing was c±uiet. Calling at the house of the pastor Ni II- 
yung we learned that he also had been arrested tfais uoraing together 
with a put; tor fjrou the 3©un4*y who had been at the meeting yesterday. 

The day has passed very quietly, there being no fliaturbaueea 
of any kind. It is rumored that tomorrow there rill be another 
meeting aiid that It will be kept up every day. They expect that the 
leaders of each day will be arrested and that tnon other appoint- 
ed leaders will take their places till there is no more room in 
the jails and that arrests will ha^e to stop perforce. 

T.D-. cf 33, who is here, went to the Central Church this morn- 
ing and found that he and others could not get in on account of the 
guard so he invited them to follow him upon the hills north of the 
city for a service. They followed very quietly and the procession 
increased ae they went till they had about eighty nnen they arrived. 

r. company of soldiers followed thorn and lined up in the roar and 
later a company of police came and lined up on another side but ao 
neither guards nor worshippers interfered with each other thoy 
went on with the Sunday School l6B6on and had a nice service for an 
hour or more. In the afternoon '■■ r.'W. and 1 and my son ~'ent for a 
walk out to Xlja's grave >ud tho northern part of tie city. 



" e p roach ad to numerous small groups &ud passed out tracts giving 
soma to the company of soldiers whom we found there. They seemed 
glad to get thea. r 'e told thorn what ne were doing and they said go 
ahead and they would follow us. 

Rumors are in the air that similar meetings were held in all 
parts of the country yesterday. Indeed that was the plan, Rumor says 
that at ieoul the people came in contact with the soldiers and that 
many peopidwere injured and that at Taiku the polioe of i ice was burned. 

Last eveting a lar^e ero">d gathered before the police office 
here in ?yong Yang and shorted "hansel" . Then the police ordered the 
hose turned on the people . This angered the crowd and they commenced 
to throw stones so that every ea window in the police of lioe was 
broken, '.hen the Korean policemen were ordered to turn the hose on 
the people uouie of them rei'used and threw off their uniforms and 
joined the people. 
Joarch 3rd. Monday. 

I thought that it wovild be well for me to go over to the 
college building and soe how things were going on there this morn- 
ing so I started over about nine o'clock and on the way I saw a com- 
pany of Japanese soldiers drilling on the campus and being watched 
by a large number of people. The college and academy students 
were standing on the bank in front of the college builuiug watching 
the aoldierc drill when suddenly tho soldiers caiuo chafing up the 
hill whoreupon tut* students took to their heels and fled. Then 
everybody including tho students coniaonoed to cheer* Two aa or three 
?.on refused to run but quietly 3too'l thoir ground. The soldiers 
rushed up to them. One of then thoy struck fith the butt of their 



7 

guns and kicked with, their feet till ho load to move away to keep 
from Being seriously injured. Another mn refused to run away 
and commenced to ahout "hansel". Tho soldiers struck him several 
times wita the butte of their guns and then one hit him over the 
huad with the barrel of hie xifle. Another poked him in the face 
with his rifle butt bo that the blood ?fae flowing from several wounds 
on hie head and face and the sidewalks wae covered vith dropa of 
i;lO»d. flMfl t o soldiers led him off between them and I saw him 
no more. 

Another man vras walking quietly along the road when a plain 
clothe* Japanese walked up and slapped him and then knocked him down 
and began to kick l.im. A soldier rushed up to help and struck the 
prostrate mun several vicious blows with his rifle aud then together 
they kicked him over an embankment into tlie ditch. Pulling him out 
of the ditch they beat hia some more and then led him away between 
thOS. 

3y this time crowds of people had collected in many different 
placet! and were cheering loudly. The soldiers ran here and there 
wherever the people were assembled scattering them and beating any 
whom they overtook. 

This work vie kept up until dinner time when the people -vent 
aoute and the rest of the day was nuict. Soldiers are pouted all 
over the city aud the city is in fact under martial law. 

Boportt' continue to cone in ae to the doing in other : »arts of 
the country. There seems to have been disturbances all over the 
coimtry. 

.«oi-t of the I ore an police have deserted and J.-iued the crowds 
It is reported that they are being arrccted and vail be executed. 
i..aay people havo been injured today, some alijatly and some aeveroly. 



7 

Tuesday » march 4th. 

The jibla class i*or Country \tOiaen which opened last Friday has had 
to close for there is so ouch confusion and noice and danger 
around that study was impossible. Several of the women ";cre assaulted 
on the 3treet yesterday by soldiers, knocked down and kicked 
into the ditch. Two foreign ladies, Mrs.H-. and V'iss I-. both of the 

ethodlst liuaion, v?ere assaulted by soldiers and rather roughly 
treated while on their v/ay from their homes to the hospital. The 
soldiers have beeu chasing people today like they were hunters 
after viiu boasts. OvtragM have been very numerous. kir.B-. was 
walking dov.'n the street -tith kr.Y-. Japanese Lcr.ool Inspector, 
whan they aav a soldier chase a man and thrust his saber into him 
from behind. They saw other men and women knocked dovu and kicked 
md treated in ^jch ways as we have heard that the Hons treated the 
Jelglans. Other members of the foreign community who were on the 
streets fceetarday saw similar outrages and their blood was made to 
boll within them by what they saw. 

For several he rc during the early afternoon no soldiers 
were visible. So the people got together in two or three different 
places and held :asetiogs of a patriotic diameter. These were soon 
dispersed by the soldiers '-'ho r>ut in an appearance. 

Wednesday, *,arch Cth. 

This day has passed very quiotly. lot till about four o'clock 
this afternoon did I hoar any shouting. 

e decided to close the ooiitsge aad academy touay lasteau of on 
the 20th. as the conditions are 30 disturbed that the ctuueuts 
would not be able to study. 



8 

"o had prayer mooting tonight in the Fourth Church aa uoual and the 
usual congregation was present. 

After tiiu aorviceo ouo of the deacons called mo abido und told me 
that he md uineteent other Koreans, all prominent men in the city 
had 1)eon called into the prefects oif ice today and a paper put be- 
fore e tham •fhich they were asked to sign. The patio.- was a statement 
to tat> o.i'iju tii.it the declaration of independence prowulgatad the 
othor day had been gotten up by a low claee of people and did not 
at all represent the sentiment of the Korean people. They were 
told that this paper had teen drawn up in Seoul and was signed 
there b,/ *aany of the :uo£t prominent citisent and now they were 
urged to Bign the statement which would then be sent to the Fnris 
peace Conference to counteract the effect of the forsBsr declaration. 

All sort of preaeuro was brought to boar upon these Iw-nty men 
to get thorn to oijn it but so said my informant, ova-ry one of them 
refused to do so. 



9 

This mavxjiiiGxit continued I'or SIX days b^i'ore a word 
about it was broathod aloud by any local paper. On the 
7th of March the Saoul^J£xfr&L^u^ 



10 



POLITICAL WWUWtWES II CH0SF.T1. 
Arrest of liingleadera . 
On the 1st of March unhappy incident l occured in :>eoul and in 
ijjiny other towns and cities throughout Chosen, mainly in the north. 
The nature of the oocuronce was a demonstration by students, incited 
by socio ;iitriotic fanatics, looking forward to the self-determination 
for the- Korean p oople. The movement was approntly led by thirty-three 
men who signed a manifesto, and distributed more than a thousand copies 
of it among the people. The arrest of tventy-nine of them was effected 
the same day. Their names are:- 



Son Pyonghoui, 
Yi Tilchu, 
Paik Yiagsong, 
Kin lankiu, 
Kim Chon chun, 
ax'v.'ou Tongchin, 
( '.•on Pyongdok, 
La Yongwhau, 
La Iiihyop, 
Yang Chonpaik, 
YXng Hanmuk, 
Yi ITapfjong, 
Yi i:yongyong, 
Yi Oonghoon, 
Yi Chonghoon, 
Yi Chongil, 
lm Leinhaa, 
Fak Chunacung, 
Pak Heuido, 
Pak Tongvan, 
Lin Hougbik, 
Cin Cokku, 
boichaii^, 
" hayunj, 
Choi Syeuguoh, 
Choi Lin, 
dan Yougun, 
ilong l yongki, 
uong i ioho , 



Head ofk the Chundokyo, Religious Association. 

Official of the Korean Y.l.i.C.A . in Seoul. 

3uddiiist Priest. 

hember of Chundokyo. 

Pastor of Central Tabernaclo. 

Teacher of Chundokyo. 

member of « 

if H n 

ti « n 

Pastor of IJ.t'res. 1 ission in Syenchun. 

Teacher of Chundokyo. 

Official of Severance Hospital. 

Pastor of fJ.tree. Mission at Chyongju. 

Jentlejan of Sariwon • 

Leader of Chundokyo. 

Toaohor '* " 

Official of : ore an Y. .C.A. in Looul . 

!l II ft :| H 

Pastor of L>. .ueth...iiifc,iOii at pyoUcYoug. 

Pastor of L. , eth. bupyokyo Church, 'Jooul^ 

Teacher of Chuuuokyo. 

Official of ^oroaa i'.^.C.A. La_ iixjoul^. 

Christian pr.aeher at frhat^u. 

Toucher of i osong rjchool. 

iuddaiat Priest. 

Leader of Chundokyo. 

Teacher of * 



11 

The Governor General finally, on HVirch 6th. issued 

the following proclamation in the Official Gazette, and 
this was then scattered ••rondsast throughout the country, 
heing posted ou u!i official bulletin boards, and then 
translated and printji in the Oeoul pr>M for March 7th. 
It is us follows :- 



12 

Urgent Iuctruction by Joveraor General. 
3y an extra issue of the Official Gazette, ? arehal Count Hnsegawa 

Governor General -of Chosen, published an instruction yesterday. The 
following is our translation: 

Jt "hen the Gtate funeral of the late Trince Yi was on the point of 
being held, 1 issued an instruction that the people should help one 
another to mourn his lose in a quiet and respectful maimer and avoid 
any rash act or disorder. Alusl I vtus deeply chaflrined to see that, 
instigated by certain refractory .en, people started a riot in Seoul 
and other places. Bumor was recently circulated that at the preliminary 
peace conference in Paris the independence of Chosen wu recognized by 
foroign powers, but the rumor is absolx.toly groimdlens. It need hardly 
he said that the soverignity cf the Japanese EJupire is irrevocably estab- 
liabjrt in tfh. p«nineul» ..n«i oill never ho broken in the future. During 
the ten years since annexation the Imperial benevolence has gradually 
ranched all parts of the country, and it is now recognized throughout 
the world that the country has madd a marked advancement in the securing 
of safety to life and property and the development of education and 
industry. Those who are trying to mislead the people by disseminating 
such a rumor as cited, kno?f their own purpose, but it is certain that 
the day of repentance will come to all who, discarding their studies or 
vocations, take a part in the mad uovouout. Immediate a.'ai;eniu_, is 
urgently required. 

"The mother country and chosen now merging into one body makes a 
State. Ito» population and strength voro found ade.j.iato enough to enter 
upon a league with the ro~?c-rs and conduce to the promotion of *<orld 
amnaoq« peace and enl ightmon I , while at the si-mc time the Ha -ire is 
going to discharge faithfully its duty as an Ally by saving its neighbors 
from difficulty. 'i'hic . is the momont^tiju whoa the bonds of unity between 
the Japanese and Koreans are to be more firmly tightened, and nothing 
will be leit undone to fulfill the missions of the aapiro and to establ- 
ish Jts prestige on the globe. It is evident that the two people*., 



13 

which h-.yo ( vur bo«-u in iuaopcrable close relatione from of old, haYw 
lately b'j^n oYon more; cloisely connected. The recent episodes arc tty no 
moans ass to any antipathy betv/cun the two peoples. It will he nost 
unwiue credulously to swallow the utterances of those refractory poodle, 
who reel .wi.t al"tvs abroad are not well informed upon the real conditions 
iu the peninsula but nevertheless are attempting to mislead their bro th- 
em by spreading wild fictions and thus disturb the peace of the Empire, 
only to briij upou themselves the derision of the FowerB for their 
indulgence i u.nbri sled imagination in seizing upon the watch word 
"self-determination of races", nfaich is utterly irrevolent to Chosen, v 
and in commitin^ themselves to thoughtloan aote and language. The 
Oovornment la Ma doinj, its utmost to put an and to such unraly boha- 
vlour and will relentlessly piuiish anybody daring to commit offence 
against the pcnCe. The pror.ent excitement will soon cease to oxist, 
but it 1a to bo hopec! that the people on their part will do thoir share 

in restoring quiet by rightly guiding their t/ords and naighbors so ao 
to save them from committing any offence liable- to a severe penalty** 



14 

As thfc independence program ms taking place in the city, boye 
from the Government Higher Common School and from the Christian 
schools distributed copies of the Declaration of Independence at 
;vo«jr house. It has been claimed that the agitation is the -work of 
low down, ignorant Koreans but any attompt to render this remarkable 
literary document into oven cocoon Korean opeoch, to say nothing of 
English, ought speedily to uiaollusion any open mind of the intellect- 
ual capacity of the authors* 

The following la one translation of the document. 



■ 

16 

A paOCLauaTIOii 

\iOf proclaim, horowith, Korea an independent state and her people froo. 

announce it to the nations of tho norld, and bo make knovm the 
grost truth of the equality of all humanity. He also make It known 
to our poetority for ton thousand generations that they may hold 
this right as a froo people for all time. With the authority and 
dignity of 5000 yours of history and the- dovotion and loyalty of 
80 ,000 .000 of poople back of us we make this proclamation. Thus we 
take this responsibility in behalf of tho sternal freedom of our poo- 
ple. 

In order that ne may move In accord nith the opportune fortunes 
of a new era when the conscience of humanity has become awakened, 
we so aot, It is the evident command of "od, the trend of the a&e 
in which we live, the natural step in accord with the right of all 
peoples to live and move together. There is nothing in all the 
world that should prevent or stand ia its way. 

Victims of the inheritance of an ancient a e of plunder and 
brute force, ws have come for tho firct tine in our history of 
thousands of years, to taste for a decade the bitter experience of 
oppression by an alien race. Hon a grea t a lose to the right of 
existence; what a hindrance to tho development of the niud; 'hat 
damage to the honor of our people; what a lack of opportunity, by any 
originality of our own, to contribute to, or aid in the onward march 
of civilization. 

If wo would rid our&clvos of resentment over the past; if uo would 
be froo from the agony of the prosont; if vie vould escape violence 
for the future; if vr© would awaken once again the conscienco of our 
paople now opproeed, or rouse the fallen state to a true endeavor; 



16 

If we would rightly develop*, character in ovary aan; If no would not 
p iso Oil to our unfortunate - abiidran- ixa. Jjih<vr.itan'vo crt aharao and 
H.:jtrece; If wo would havo future generations for all time enjoy the 
perfection of blossiag, wo must, first and foremost, secure complete 
independence for our people. 

Let every eoul of oar 80,000,000 of people, In this day when 
human nature and the conccionco of the times, ac soldiers, of right 
and defenders of humanity, aid uc, go forth with sword in heart. If 
no do so wo can break down all opposing forces, and pushing forward 
obtain the object of our desire. 

■,c do not wish to find fault with Japan, who made so favora- 
ble a treaty with ue in 1876, for her insincerity in breaking, time 
and again, this and that provision of that same solemn a»rcouout{ 
nor to blame her for laok of honesty, when her literati, speaking 
from tho platfom, and her officials, by their acts, count tho inher- 
itance of our fathers as a colony of their own, or treat our civili- 
sation us though we were eava&es only to bo satisfied whoa they 
beat us into eubmie«.iou, and yut to shame the foundation of our 
society and our boat mental endeavors. 

Vio, v/ho have special need to reprimand ourselves, should 

spend not time on tho faults of ofchors; *>&, who need to organise the 

proeent, should waste not a minute in finding fault -ith tho past. 

Our one responsibility today is to establish ourselves, and not to 

the 

null down others. In lino with dictates of a cloar conscience 
our duty is to break up the fallow _rouad of our new doetiny, and 
not for a moment, through loa^ smothered rosontmont, or passing angor 
to spitefully attack or offer opposition. 



17 

Our wish iii to novo the Japono&v Government, bound us it ic by 
old idear and past-day influences, a victim of the love of fame, that 
.cts and manifests itself by the unnatural and unreasonable ways of 
t rror, to change to something befeter, and by a straight road and nat- 
ural iad ruaaonableway, return to the place of innocence. 

The result of annexation that was brought about without any re- 
quest on the part of our peoplo, ha*, ueoat oppression, used ao a time 
Lcrvlag meaauro, impartiality, etatistiC3, based oa false figures, 
intundod to ohow the reverse of ".'hit is really true in a profit and 
loss account between our tvro peoples. Thus, the farther they go, 
the deoper they dig a trench of rosentment betwoen us that no recon- 
ciliation can ever bridge, behold the result today. 

The Holding under of 20,000,000 of people, fillod with angor and 
bursting with resentment, will not only be a cause of disturbance to 
the pence of the Par East, but will, tho farther it goes, increase, ae 
well, fear and suspicion of the Japanese, oa the part of the center of 
peacu and danger of tho Far East, the 400,000,000 of Bhiaa, and will 
undoubtedly result in calling dona oa tho "hole of Bast Asia tho ead 
fate of universal destruction. 

Thus our it-dependence today while it means a right honor duo 
iioroa, moans, at the same time, the departure of Japan from an unjust 
•vny to one where ahe truly assumes the groat responsibility of pro- 
tector of the Far "ast, as v/oll as removii*g from China those disturbing, 
fears, that she cannot etcupo oven in her urooae. It moans, too, a step- 
ping stone to the peaoo and happiness of the whole of humanity, vrhich 
regards tho peace of tho Par 3-act is so important a part of tho ''hole. 
This is by uo means a question that roste on any trivial amotions. 



m 

During tho firot d ay a of tluj duaojiatratioia, -notlooft.wor* fi>*uly 

Jiatribctod about the city urging no violence, no um-eeoly conduct 
or iaproper language. Tho plan of action included a dononutration 
lo the world that the noroane won. neithor "barbariane" nor "half- 
civllizud' as had of ton boon declared nor devoid of capacity for 
organization or Lelf -restraint . She organizing c omit tee, 
therefore, laid special enohanif, upon absolute order and perfect 
c~lf-control . In fact tho wort of organization, consldoring tho 
muutcuess of supervision by tho police of tho country, has been 
ciaply Mil inliWli . Tho ability/of tho Toruuns to carry through their 
p> »nr- and to continue thon for daye and -"joke, hae boon a 8tirtl4ng 
revelation and not loaat so to the Ciovoiiuaettt itoelf, "Jut tho 
most remarkable phaae of tho novenont has boon the perfect self- 
control 6*f the people. Proao reports continue to tiay that jobc 
attacked tho police and on account of tliia, the riotors wore ihot upon, 
3uu eyowitnejuou of thcia incidents so reported have failed to »<itn©oo 
a single instance in which th„> ao-called iaoba attacked police, 
Japanese civilians or others. 

Tho following are translations of sozic of tho Announcements circu- 
latod in the early day £ of the dcuionstratiaao. 



19 

Tho Declaration of Iudup;:ndoaco had been preparod by 3 Coaaittwc 
of Thirty Three and tinned b„. the eame. The lint wan headed by 
Sou PjflKghi, the head of this Chuntoiyo, a ecuji-relijjioua, eouii -political 
organisation. Thooe men all planned to arrive iu Seoul before harch 
li t, lii order that they utght be on hand to join in tho Independence 
c.lubr ition iu the capital on the afternoon of ? arch liit. It happened 
that but 29 of thou atycc^ud'jd In reaching Seoul on time. They planned 
dt firet, 00 it fcc reported, to pre- eon t in pe-reon u copy of tho Decla- 
ration of Independence to tho doviraor General, but after further 
dollbor .Hon it mm decided that they uhould hive j. dimmer together 
at 30UC rottauraat ia Seoul in the aveninj alter the cel^brat ion and 
then uurrondor theuiaolvea to thu police. Thic plan «at carried out, 
co It it reported, and at the oloee of the dinner the polioe -'ere 
notified of their *4icroaboutc aud told that they ve.ro ready to go to 
jail. Police come v/ith autououilow to arrest thaa, but before they 
were taken one of tb(;o it; reported to have arieen and said, "It is not 
fitting that our repast should b^ eonoluded without ahoutin^ "'jane^l" 
(Hurrah .Liter >lly 10,000 o^oe) for lnaopondonce. "So they gave their 
ehout *i .annul" and the 29 wore forthwith arreetod and hurried off 
to Jail. One of the cignore, Rov.r.11 Sunju, -Motor of the central 
i'recbyteriin Church, *'ycn£ 7auj ie reported to have arrived in Seoul 
lite \nd proceeded directly to the Jail and aeked to be confined 
nith the othor nou, ao ho lichod to shnro their jlory. Uie rcquoot, 
neediest to pay, viu printed. 

The Seoul ! ret;t. for arch 7th jivee tho licL of tooee neu. 
Auon^ theia v, er. 1. ,:tea;>-. of the ehuuiokyo, IS Qtoft£fctaM> a t ?o 
3ud„uieto, una (Ml unknown. 

Other report; on the evoute of tu.j^e u 1*%/ day nuu^roue. 
Tho following are £ivea and are accurate „aJ reliable. 



20 

Iucid^nt^ of Severe treatment of. tore ana, by 
Ijp Japanese soldiers, aocn personally by STACT L. 8085HT5. 

1. a naa rue down by two horsemen. 

a. group of men and boys bud been standing and snouting "•lanscl" when 
thoy cbirgod by Soldiers with fixed bayonets and scattered iu all diroc- 
tionc: in addition to the soldiers on foot two men, one in uniform and 

one not, came upon thorn on horsobick; these tvo men, having evidently 
decide*) to catch a certain uan, nppro iched him frora opposite si''03 and 
^r-idually cloood in on him till they jot near onough to strike him and 
one ae ho galloped by gave the man a trrriblc blov: on the shoulder with 
what looked like a b:;iaboo rod, this blow nearly knocking the man over: 
he tried to run after- that but could only stagger alon^ and jo w^jt ea&ily 
caught: then four soldiers on foot earns rumiin^ up and knocked the iaan 
ever and then kicked hiu, st imped on him struck him in the foco, and 
struck him severely in tho back with the butt of their gunc etc. The 
last I saw they vorc dragging him off. 

2. Young boy caught and severely beaten under our window. 

In one of these raids when the soldiers were trying to scatter the 
crowds that had boon shouting •k.ansei" four soldiers caught one young fol- 
low about 22 years of age ju&t as he was coning around the corner of our 
house vnd they boat him most torribly; struck him in the race over and 
ever again with tremendous force: ramcd him is the sides with the butt 
of their ^ans, knock hln ovor, kick him most unmercifully and pound him 
on the head etc. etc. I wac stnidinj within a few feet of It all. Of 
course he mide no resistance as he was helpless in the hands of & uoldiurc 
with guns and b yonets, ho having nothing, ilo pleaded for mercy but would 
got a terrific blow in the face overy tiao he spoke a friend of his cams 
up and tried to plead saying the nan who « »t getti.^g t lit beating *»as on 
nis way to the hospital and had nothin w to da vrieh the cro d -hich had 
been shoutin^ "kansci" ; : . _ m . 



2i 

3 Little boy tied \nd. irrustcd. 

Jfcetordjy afternoon about 30 -i^xLi i-ext with _ctaryvd ©ujraiurt;c ch-irged 
apoja U ^roup Qf m^a aud boy^. vruo hid boon shout inj ", ansoi" and caught 

4 of • • c : among then vtuu od'j little boy about 14 years of a^o *ihom they 
tied, Ji: they did the other throe and boat him oa the head and in the 
faSe etc. he cried but they k-pt on boating him. Ac they came running 
id the g ;tc to the cro-.vd they mot coming out a vorkmon, Tiho had not 
Ween with crowd at all, an ignoi-nt coclic, and they turned on him and 
boat him most severely, three oi' the^i "Joinj it as hard and fast as they 
could. Then tht»y let him go. Yhuy J»oke a piece of our v/oocton gato 
and beat one urn with it. 

4. -02iC-a shot at and knocked over in the ditch. 

Some coldiers tried to stop sone 'omen from shouting and as they 
would not stop I saw one soldier knoc!: two women over vrith the butt of 
his 5U0, knocking then in the ditch, one gjt up bleeding and the other 
limping: I should guess that one of them mo about fifty years of ago. 
Tne uoldiors got down on On i.- kn^ofa and levelled thair guns at the woman 
and fired. 

Aside from these that I have reported 1 have seeu lit orally fccores 
of -J<*n and ooys be a -on most severely . 



58 iuUEDLAED AT iUIBG-iAN. 



At Uaiusan Tillage, South Pyen^un irovince, the following inci- 
dent took place, about karch 3rd. v/han the uprising first broke out, 
there were no Japanese gendarmes at this village, but Koreans only. 
The people living there were mostly Chuntokyo followers. 3o no 
Christians were involved in the trouble. Theae Chuntokyo people gytft 
gsthsred on the sppointed day for the Korean Independence celebration 
sad had the usual speeches and shouting of "Mansei". The Korean 
gendarmes did not want to or did not dare to interfere eo the day was 
spent by these people as they pleased. A few days later Japanese 
soldiers arrived to investigate and to put down the uprising. They 
found the people meeting again, ostendloly to honor one cf their teachers 
fas soldiers immediately interfered and seized the leadei of the meeting 
and led him away to the gemaaxae station. Ho was badly tieatod in the 
affray and the people were greatly incensed. So they followed the nold- 
iers to the station hoping In some way to effect the release uf their 
fellow countryman. The soldiers tried to drive the:r. aurav i-ome left 
bat others followed until they arrived at the station. This isj not an 
ordinary station for it was surrounded by a court yard about the size of 
a email tennis court and around this was a stone wall . mere was but 
ens gate to this eaclosure. The soldiers permitted those who insisted 
OS following to enter and when all had entered olocc-d the gate, and then 
the •Oldisrs deliberately Bet to work to shooting down ail the men, 
absolutely defeneelesc men, in cold blood. 56 were time shot of whom 
three in some way effected their escape. The soldier c examined the 
fallen bodies and those which were found to be still ulive were run 
through again and again with bayonets until all but three were despatohed 
They were then piled up and counted and finding that three had escaped 
the soldiers set out in pursuit to find them. In the shooting one 
soldier was shot. It is said that one of the crowd seized a gun from 
a soldier and before it could be recovered he had shot a man. 

The soldiers set out in pursuit of the three men and not finding 
them is»ediately searched all the nearby villages. But they could not 
be found. The men had gone as far as a bridge and had hidden beneath 
this for some hours until dark when they managed to escape detection. 

The aoldiers then visited. all the houses of the people near 
by and told them that they must not go travelling about but roust 
remain at home and attend strictly to their own bueinaes . Christiana 
were told to give Christianity. Followers of the Qburtckys wore told 
to give up their faith. And all were to do their b-Jsiu??H orly. 

In particular one woman's arrest and release were ezccpttoMjl 
and Interesting. She was a 3ibla woman sent out to t&ie f:.&:.Q. by 
one of the missionaries in Pyong Yang. The soldiers front* ac.y preaching 
and arrested her and took her to the gendarmerie. There the was severely 
reprimanded and told to quit her preaching. "If you edntvuue preaching." 
they said, "we shall have to punish you according to law. 1 * She repliod, 
"Slaoe I have been sent to preach of God, I must do so.* Thereupon 
the Chief replied, "That it all bosh. You were hired and sent out here 
by the foreign missionaries in Pyeng Yang. God has not sent you. But 
even though you have been sent by God, we expect to subject God to the 
law end Bunlsh Sim too. Take notiae. If you are cauijlt pre.aching a^ain 
yOU Will he seized and punished severely." Sespite this warning she 
declared her determination to continue preaching and to illustrate her 
purpose handed tracts to three of the ofi'ioers standing there including 
the Chief, and urged them to read them carefully. 

SIFGCIIANS VILLAGE CHURCH BSEL BROKEN AilD PASTOR" 3 
Win; MUTILATED. 

At Sinchang the soldiers broke the bell belonging to the Keth- 
odiet Church. The wife of the pastor of the church was attacked by the 
soldiers. She was with child at the time. The soldiers beat her 



ritb their guns bo that at the time of thta report thera waa no possibl- 
ity of her recovery. 

Thia Incident took place in the early part of March. 

3^ SEOUL UTRISIBG III TASLIVE RSSISTASCS. 

Wl%fcSBut Arms and Exhorted by Leaders to Use No Violenoe. 
They Defy Authority. 

ALL PENIIJSTJLA AITECTSD 

Oat elde of iooul Rioters Are Out of Hand - Attacks on 
Polioe Are Reported. 



pecUl to The Advertiaers- 

flteul, Korea, March 5.- On Saturday last Seoul witnessed a Korean de- 
iouatration which had not been achedualed and for which no adequate prepara- 
tions had been nade by the authorities. 

A Manifesto was published declaring the independence of the former 
•Angle* of Korea, the declaration carrying the signatures of thirty-throe 
''>: oratn«»t men in the Korean cocnunity, in eluding members of the Chundokyo 
eaohnagaa of Heavenly T -.ays), 3udohists, Confucianists and Protestant Chri- 
:ians. The slgncra'of this proclamation who could be found and other Kor- 
ean loaders were arrested by the police and taken to police headquarters in 
aitoaoniles, while thousands of Koreans sur^od through the streets, start- 

from fagoda lark* the dooonstrators being led by students from the. 
government schools and private institutions. 

Girls Jfearleee Leaders. 

Students from the Government Higher Girls* School were among the fear- 
less, conspicuous leaders of the street crowds, while thia demonstration 
vss taring place in Seoul, similar simultaneous demonstrations were being 
ado la Uukden, Yungjung, Sysngyang, Chinnampo, Haiku and the other leading 
.3 ties. 

There was no demonstration during the state funeral of the late Grand 
"xinoo Yi, but on Wednesday there were three simultaneous demonstrations in 
ifferant sections of Seoul. Hundreds are being arrested, including many 
virl students. The Korean youths are refueing to attend school and are 

lying on a passive resistance to authority, a line which marks the en- 
ire douonstration. nothing like what is transpiring has ever previously 
-sen witnessed here. The Koreans are entirely without arms and the leaders 
of the demonstrations prohibit all violence. 

; Hospital Burses Parade. 

ABong the students of a girls* school at Seoul, which is conducted by 
Americans, circulars wore diutribated on Tuesday night and the following 
-ning there were assembled at the Hands imon gate about 1,5000 students, 
eluding many girls and 50 nurses from an American hospital. A small 
:isce of red cloth was given to all those assembled and wearing this badge 
.m their arms the students, preceded by a large banner bearing the in- 
scription "Great Torea Mansei," began to march io-nn the streets. 

Police '''ith Brawn Swords. 



When the demonstrators reached Uoncho the police with drawn swords 



attempted to check the advance of the Koreans several 
ii. th« course of the clash with the polioe that followed. A large part of 
the people preceedod to the Daikanmon, but finding the gate securely shut 
--oeracad their steps towards ths Shoro avenue, but here they found a strong 
police oordon. Finding themselves between two police cordons the people 
gradually dispersed. 

On the receipt of the news of the appearance of rioters near the In- 
dependence Sate, a detachment from the Byuzan regiment arrived at the 

*e at the double and the Korean assembled there were at once dispersed. 
Voo«fc 8S0 arrests were made at Seoul in the course of the day. 

"Orderly; saya Minister. 

•taT. Veda, Minister of CoE&tunioations, and Mr. Foga, Director of the 
",'loftial Bureau, who were In Sooul during the recent rioting to attend the 

funeral of the late Srand Prince Yi, returned Tokyo yesterday afternoon. 

- ,according to Mr, Koga, the riot in 3eoul was started by the founder 
w^^he Ten-Do Kyo, who had nearly 1,200,000 followers among the native po- 
pulation, while several thouBards Christians, mostly young students, also 



their d( 



ration very 
>ga. "A few 
ras soon. N 



orderl- 



?ully avoiding 
irov;n, but, be- 
sre resorted in 



connection with the riot either it. jeoui or in other twons." 



STATSkiKT BY R&V.L.MoaAB OP EV3HT0 1H tUti£3 J'JH&f , K028A . 
On the night of ijarch ^nd, and the oarly morning of karch 5rd,lS19 



before any 
and one te 
police ata 
On Mon 



mstrr.tion occured in Humhoung city, a number cf the students 
of the Christian school were arrested and taken to the 

le 3rd it ie said that the stores wefe ordered oleeed by the 



ople to con 
■:1c and wit: 



.touted, "Throe cheers for tne 
fxaja. Students from the iiff< 
large number of them were arrei 
vith fire-fighting lance hooks 
On lisrek 4th about twelve 1 
in by the Koreans. With this < 
.long the crowd with clubs; sot 
1 onoe fire-hooks, seme Iron bcu 
-ith short handled club-hooks. 



it- no one was 



i i.rc 
uxt. 



the head, hooking them here and there witl 



ejeax nsnai.es, c 
rd wood and pii 
into the cro*c 



a short time many had been s-ei 
thoir faces were drajged to the po] 

Among those so treated ras a yc 
and younger brother of one of the I 
: great pain, his head hung to one 
left side of his head, blood struar 
.i-o.ie after a few days in a critical 

Another man was dragged along t 
use policemen. Across his head wat 
face was knocked out of shape froia 
v?as flowing. Hie left leg aaso hut 
aan is a Christian, about fifty yet 
spital for several days he was set 
st aim. Hie name is Chai Hak-sung, 



»d, and 

;ion by 



■tie r.i&3n 

.scat e-aft a 
r_ ap:o?.r«d 

rtici 5»t (■■& 

- 



), rrom a tei"jrio_*e wou^u 13 
lown his face. Tiis maa was 
litinn. 

Is the police station by two 



.ce 
sent 



. rto 



BJ 



oapene 

K or a violent. Dlow, and his 
q the left side from v.hlch blood 
ud he too ^re-usd in pain. This 
e. After treatment in the ho- 
the police with no charge again- 



another of those dragged to tha polloe ota-taaa, was Pak Yiohin, 
iudoct from one of the non-ohria-tian schools;. Ei*— alcull was so 

Ly crushed that after a few 



dying oondJ 
One thi 
girls ware 
the wounds 

seamed 



cm-cnrurtian scuooie. ttua-ajcum. was so 
days be was sent out in apparently a 

tion to the homo of his friends. 

c same day at least 3even Korean men and a number of 
taken to the police station in a pitiful condition from 
received. ' 
these scenes were being enacted the police and g^ruLarmea 
take no part in the arrests, but simply kept guard over \hjsr^ 
Japanese fire brigade as they clubbed and arrested the Koreans. 

80 far as was seen there was no resistance made by the Koreans 
they neither lifted a stick nor burled a stone to defend thotacelves 
nor did they utter a word of abuse against the Japanese. 

On March 6th the stores in Hamheung wore still closed and con- 
sequently a lar.-.e number of people were out on the streets. Rear the 
soring was again indulged in, and with this tne Japan- 
again rushed out with their clubs. A number were 
a ted, among whom was one Fyong Sung Kwan. He was ckxx 
ck of the head with a club and was carried apparent- 
police station. Lvoa on this occasion not a stone or 
ei by a-iCorean, nor even a word of abuse was hear*. 
Pyong was sunt home a froe man, but with no redress, 
ater it was said on reliable information, about ten 
amheung on market day tha Koreans cheered as they 
eung. They were not interfered with by the polioe, 
ad cheered the police officer spoke a few kind words 
all went home. It is also said that on March 15th 
in Hung on market day choerod for Koroa. The police 
he defenoeless crowd and four wore killed and four 
mong the killed was a woman who at the time was pasa- 
f water on her head. The sight of the dead and wound- 
their blood bo exasperated the Koreans that they 
rmea . 

wore reported killed at Sung Lok, near Homheung. 
days a large number have been arrested, among whom 
Christians. This la in brief what has happened in 
mity up to the loth of karoh. 

I was an eye-witness to what 
happened oft March 4th. as herein above 
statod. (Signed) M . D .McHae . (Member of 
the Canadian Presbyterian Mission.) 

ACCOOTT OP JCTOLT^TIOB TO DATE. (March 10th.) 



cattle mark 
use fire br 
clubbed and 
struck on t 
ly dead, to 
a stick was 
After a few 
A few d 
miles out f 
had done in 
and after t 
to them and 



M 



are many reading ChrlstJ 
Hamheung and vicinity uj 
Seoul, March 20th, 1919 



The revolutii 
cities in Korea : 
planned for, the 
claimatien of im 
men gathered ir. 
proclalmation wai 
^han this was coi 
ready to go to it 
of the signers hi 
and dinner went 1 
C8 the other jaen 

In Seoul and 
tha military wer< 
districts violent 
Soldiers are tor: 
baen fired upon, 



at 



Saturday afternoon March let in. many large 
d like wild-fire to the country. It was well 
boing from all kind3 of the people. A pro© 
ea was issued, signed by 35 men. 29 of these 
i%b, 23th and after the meeting where the fx 
a restaurant for a aluner together, 
lejjhoaod to the police that they were 
es took them away to the prison. One a 
00 late to participate in the mooting 
lirectly to the priuon and asked to be treated the same 

h : A s recu©3t wa° p "'.inted 
Pyongyang and other places where foreigners resided 
1 kept rrom firing on tne crowds. But in the country 
:e a? the most terrible description has been practiced, 
■oriaing thu wnole country. Unresisting crowds have 
wounding hundreds and killing scores of the people. 



i, met 

Dd the 
Autom 
urriv 



26 

Church* buildings have been wrecked by these guardians of the law. 
private houses have been entered and young men and school girls in 
particular dragged off to prison, where beating has been the common 
treatment while a limited number have been held for trial. 

Here in Tyengyang where the treatment of the people has been much 
milder than what was 3hown in the country, I have personally witnessed 
or heard directly from direct witnesses of so many terrible aoones kk 
that I can hardly bear to write of them, 

1. Five Theological Seminary students (men) who had Just arrived 
in 9s*S Pyongyang that morning were arrested at noqn while sitting in 
or standing quietly by their roome and taken to the police station. 
They pretested their complete innooenoe, but were given 29 lashes at 
full strength. 

2. Two girls were draped by their hair from a hou«i6 near the 
Mission Hospital, tied to a telegraph post by their hair and there 
horribly beaten by deputized firemen, and then led off to Jail. 

3. The one old man 65 year&> of age was caught by the soldiers and 
beaten and kicked in the legs until he could not walk. Then he was 
dragged off to the jail. Before he had gone 200 yards, he was met by 
another squad of soldiers who repeated the performance. At the jail, 
this was again dose, and sacause the man had oollapeed he was sent home 
in a ricksaaw . 

4. while the crowds were parading the streets the police and sol- 
diers ran their weapons delibertly into unresisting atanders by, simply 

because they happened to be standing in the way. 

5. In front of the Prefect's office, one defenceless Korean was 
run down by and killed by two fire-men armed with long poles with iron 
hooks attached. The corpse was draped away by driving the hooks into 
the body and the men pulling the body along the ground. 

6. Old men, women and children have been indiscriminately abused, 
beaten, cut down with aworda, struck by the fireman with fire-hooks, 
officially paddled at the police station, partially run thru with 
•ayonets, and never a man resisted the military. The passive revolt 
has been true to its name here. 

Because we foreigners have seen all, we are not only persons non- 
grata to the Japanese but in real danger of out lives. It is reported 
that hired thugs are wandering about the olty at night to way lay whom 
they may. The foreigners may be attacked and injured or killed by k 
these men. If they are, the Government will promptly disavow the acts, 
but the objeoticnable individules will, nevertheless, be out of the way. 
It is becoming increasingly questionable whether we foreigners can 
remain here during the continuanoe of the trouble. 

Loyal Announcement. 

Alas! How is it that our people who have a history running baok 
for 4000 years should for the past ten years have been held in bondage 
as slaves? Listen, brethren, if we do net become free at this time, we 
shall never be able to gain freedom and will die. Dear brethren, take 
warning, it can be done and it is possible. So not become discouraged 
give up all your business for the present and shout Mansei. Injury t« 
life and property are of consequence but right and humanity are far 
more important. Until the news of the Peace Conference is received, wj 
to not cease. Vo are not wood or stone but flesh and bones 
so why can we not move? TChy go baok and become discouraged? Ueo all 
your strength and shout Mansei. Do not fear death. Every one 
by nature has to live once and dio once. Therefore even though I die, 
my children and grand children shall enjoy the blessings. Lansei, 
Manse i, Manse i. 



27 

3PLCIAL AimOOBCUdrilT 
Think, dear Korean brethren! What place have our children or grand—-" 
children to stand on? What place to speak in? What land la there 
•aerein their blessings may expand? Our loyalty 7/hich has been 

i-ifssted today and our burning earnestness fill heaven and e~rth. 
•<ho am I and who are you? The red blood in our vuins is a sign of 
our blood relationship. 

Alas, how can nature be indifferent and how can humanity be so oott- 
trery to law? We have perfectly oxpressed virtue in our hearts, 

-oughts and very bones, and the whole earth has taken up the grand 
-jpiiit of peace and the rightful privileges of mankind. At this very 

omemt how can you(the Japanese) show »uch ill fooling and such treaohery 
h3 to injure us with guns and swords? How can your violonce be so 
Jeep and burdensome? Dear Korean Brethren, if for tho smallest 

/lings we have already suffered hindrances and injuries how much more 
mail it be so on account of the work of today? i,ven though your flesh 
is torn from you little by little and your blood is diunk up cup by cup 
can your mind be torn out? Dear brethren, since wo are swearing ■ 
!>y thoue who are dying, think of the pant, take account of the future, 
for if we do not maintain our purposes as firmly as our very bones and dbe^ 
4ie, shall our life be simply muscles (i.e. vanity)? 

We havd briefly written this, in our ignorant way, but let each not ok 
cease for a day or an hour to continue in the work which we have already 
begun, and this is our meeeage to you. 

(Digged) Korean Independonco Band 
P.8. Yesterday, outside tho West Gate several hundred girl students sang 
a Korean song for Korea with great lovo and shouted Manse i. Let all the 
patriots inside of and outside tho city walls remember the spirit of these 
girl studonte and show forth the fervor of men. 

A CALL TO F3AYTR . 

1st, Fast and pray on Sunday. 

2nd. Wherever you are pray at 6 A.M., 12 M., and 7 P.M. 
3rd, Read the Bible every day with clean minds as follows, on Mar. 4th, 
Jas.lst.and 5th. 13th - to end; — on Mar, iith. Iaa.59th l..end; 
Mar.6thBom.ath. ; The beginning day. Esther 3rd. chap. to 
loth. chap. — ae Solden text 4th chap. 13— 17th vs. 
Mar. 1st AKts 12; 1-25. liar, and. Jar .12, 
Mar. 3rd, Deut. 28:1-14, Matt. 5: 43-40. Matt. 6th: 30-34. 

Translation of notice - Issued Monday, Mar. 3rd, 

EXTRA D u'ORTANT AH'JOPHCSMENT . 
Respectable, noblo^ independent Korean band, Whatever you do, 
do not insult the Japanese, do not throw stonos, do not hit with 
your fists for those aro the acts of barbarians. Whoever 
performs such acts injures the cause of indopenderce and is there- 
fore a danger, so let everyone without exception take great care. 

(Signed by) uoreun Independence Eand. 

Information, 

TO MOM IT MAY CONCERN 

Pyeng Yang, March 3rd, 1919 

Today I uaw two Japanese soldiers attack a defenseless 
Korean. One soldier seized him by the shoulders and kicked 
his to utmost of hit, strength frou behind, the other reversing 
hie rifle, repeatedly, with full force strike his victim on the 
chest and stomach; the soldier then dropped his gun and con- 
tinued pounding tho man in the face with his fist, the other 
soldier continuously kicking him from behind. 

When the soldiers abandoned him he was 1 mediately attacked 



28 

by a Japanese citizen who wearied iiimscJ-i'"' kicking and abusing his. 

Pyen^, Yang, March 3rd. 1919 

Today I saw mounted Officer ride down and sabre a man while 
freeing for hie life. 

*********** * ***** * 

Pyeng Yang, Varch 3rd. 1919 

To day I saw a body of thd city firemen (from their dress 
I apposed them to be firemen) about ten in number armed with 
long billhooks chasing Koreans and striking them brutally, 
finally driving them thru the Potong river out toward the country. 

**** ******** ****** 

Pyeng i'ang, March 5tk. 1919 

This afternoon while walking along the eidcv.alk near the 

college building I met a Korean friend and stop to ask him 

haw he was and what he was doing and then pasted on. Just as I 

left him a mounted policeman came around the corner and saw ms 

speaking to him, as soon as I was out of 6ight he charged on to 

him with his horee and beating him. He then took him to the police 

station where ho was again beaten until he v/ould confess to the 

conversation that passed between u3. 

****************** 

"TO^ 07 ARREST OF TV'O AJ€??ICAT! M3SI0NAP.i r P . 

A missionary writes: M 0n Suesday, March 4th, while stopping at 
' the homo of Rev. £ .L .Roberts, in Pyeng Yang, Korea, we notice a crowd of 
Korean women coming near our compound. Ve went out to see where they were 
going. They were walking quietly and came into the compound and up on the 
hill back of the Seminary, but made no outcry. Very soon some Japanese 
soldiers came following them and began roughly pushing them down the hill 
T<ith their guns. a.t that, come other Koreans not far away, cried out 
"liansel". Vfe stood a little apart watching, and I said, *We might as well 
go now", and started down the hill. Just than some Japanese soldiers 
came up and began to talk to Mr. Roberta, and I heard him say, "I am 
caught", and turning around, I Baw two soldiers holding him. I came back 
-id said to them, "Lot go, as he was only looking on". The two soldiers 
grabbed me, and said, "You must oome to the station", I raid, "There is 
no reason for this". But they held us roughly and hustled us along, in 
company with six soldiers, down t .rough the main street which was lined 
r.ith Koreans. As soon as we reached the police station, I pushed on 
into the inner offices, wfaer6 thoro were both military and civil offi- 
cers. I at once demanded to know by what rule wo were arrested. I said 
we were Americans on our own property simply lool-ing on, had said or 
lone nothing, and that this outragious action by ti.e scld:.err, was 
r-haasful; that they hit two American ladies the do;- c«f crs; and these 
'hings would harm Japan's standing aa there was n'. for s.uch treat- 
ment. They told us to write our namea and age, an< fcbsa asked if we 
had been leading the women up on the hill, I replied that we know nothing 
about it and were Just looking on, and had told the soldiers so. They 
th&n said, "Well, you oan go". TThile leading us along to the station 
the soldiers were most rough and brutal, striking' and pounding the poor 
lioreans out of their way. This German-like military rale seems to have 
no respect for law or order. 

A MISSIONARY WRITES OF *3CiT OP *HS OUTAGES IN CONNECTION 
WITH THE INDEPENDENCE 
UOVEiffiNT . 



28 

For the crime of shouting^ "Hurrah for Korea", or even for looking 
a atLant onlooker, or' passer-by, nan , women and children have been out 
beaten and kicked la a most brutal manner by the Japanese soldiers. I 
nave keen so much of it that it makes ay "Wbood boil. Here is one incident . 

On March 3rd I was watching a few tens of Koreans who wore standing 
\bout in no disorderly way, but now and then crying out their, "Manaei" 
^Hurrah for Korea), when on came the soldiers. A 3oldier caught one of 
the older man who was standing near. He may have beon just an onlooker. 
The soldier at once begun striking his face and kicking him, and then 
is dragged him over to another soldier, who hit him over the head as hard 
•is he could. Then they both began to kick and pound hkm, treating him 
soat skamefully. The man was not resisting or fighting back, but thia is 
ae common brutal way in which these poor people are treated, instead of 
sing arrested in any lawful way. The same day I saw two women beaten, 
ioked and. thrown down into a ditch. And in another place I saw the 
soldiers shoot into a crowd of woman. 

The soldiers chase even the small boys; then beat and kick them 
and treat them worse then oattle. But the Koreaua have decided so far 
to stand and suffer, and not to resist. They only want to mako it known 
that they love their land. Do far this has been a peaceful revolution 
on the part of the Koreans, who use no weapons but their mouth3, and yet 
thoy suffer the moat terrible atrocities at the hands of these soldiorB, 
soldiers who stand for a worse militarism than Germany. 

Pyeng Yang, Korea, March 8, 1919 

A MAN HOT DOW 3Y TTO HOUSEMAN. 

Pyeng Yang, Korea, 
March 4, 1919 

A group of men and boys had beon standing and shouting "Mansei", 
when they ware charged by soldiors with fixed bayonets and scattered 
in all directions. In addition to the soldiers on foot, two men, one 
in uniform and one not, came upon them on horseback. These two men 
having evidently decided to catch a certain man, approached him from 
pposite aides, gradually closing in on him till they got mear enough 
to strike him, and one as he gallops by gave the man a terrible blow 
on the shoulder with what looked like a bamboo rod, nearly knocking 
the man over. He tried to run after that but could only stagger along 
H v id bo was easily caught, Then four soldiers on foot came running up 
and knocked the man over. They kicked him, stamped on him, struck him 
in the face, and struck him severely in the back with the butt of 
their guns, etc. The last 1 aaw they were dragging hia off. 

Young 3oy Caught and Severely beaten Under Our window. 

In one of these raids when the soldiers were trying to scatter 
the crowds that had been shouting mansei, four soldiers oaught one 
young boy about 22 years old, just as he was aoming around the corner of 
our house. They beat him most terribly, struck him on the face over and 
over again with tremendous force, rammed him in the sides with tho butt 
of their guns, knocked him over, kicked him unmercifully and pounded him 
on the head, etc. I was standing within a few feet of it all. Of course 
he aade no resistance as he was helpless in the hands of 4 soldiers with 
guns and bayonets; he having nothing. He pleads for mercy but would get 
a terrible blow in the face every time he spoke. A friend of his came 
up and tried to plead for him, saying the boy was on his way to the 
hospital and had had nothing to do with the crowd which had beon shout- 
ing Mansei. 

1ITTL2 BOY TIBS AND ARRSSTSDt 



Yesterday afternoon about 30 soldiers with fixed bayonets 



ohar»od upon a group of men and boys who had been Shouting lnansoi, 
and caught four of thorn. Among thoiu wa3 one little boy about 14 
years old, whom thoy tied us thoy did the other throe, boating thorn 
on the hand and in the face. Ho oried out, but they kept on beating 
him. As they came running in the gate to got the crowd, th^y met 
coming out a workman who had not been with the crowd at all, an 
ignorant coolie. The soldiers turned on him and boat him most severely 
three of them doing it as hard and fast as they could. Then they let 
them so* Thoy broke a pioce off our wooden gate and beat one man 
with it. 

V/0L3N SHOT AT 4*1) KWOCKTD OTEB INTO DITCH. 

Some soldiers tried to stop a group of woid6n from shouting. 
As they would not stop one soldier inockud two women over with the 
'5utt of his gun, knocking them into the ditch. I saw one. get up bleed- 
ing and the other limping. 1 should guess that one of them was 
t'.bout fifty yours of age. Then the soldiers got down on their kneos 
•ad levelled their guns at the women and fired. 

Aside from theso that I have reported I have seen literally scores 
of men and beys beaten most severely. 

Signed 

THE DQSSAI =fflVOLT. 

An austral ian missionary in Korea writes: 
"In the afternoon of Mnnday, March 3rd, they turned the 
Japanese firemen loose on the crowd. They looked like stage devils, 
:res8ed in close fitting black pants, red and bluck tunics, with a 
hood over their heads. They ran after the scattering school boys at 
.opspeed. They had long sticks with an iron hook at one and and a 
heavy sharp wedge at the other end. A man was afterwards seen at the 
>ospital whoso head had been cirushed in by devilish weapon, and he 
was half parallsed. Members of our new theological class who had Just 
come in and had taken no part in the demonstration, w^ro arrested, tied 
'• o woodou crosses and beaten 29 times till their fieah was raw. 
Some were told by the Japanese that ao Jesus their Christ suffered 
on a cross, ao it was fitting that they should suffer likewise. One, 
?:ho expected soon to enter the ministry, was told that it would 
be a sign of being a dangorous charaoter to do so . These men had had 
no connection with the movement. inoffensive men run the same 
danger of arrest as the others. 

KYUMIPO CtlUECH DAMAU3D. 

On Monday, the third of March, the Kyumipo Chvrch was badly dam- 
aged by the Japanose citizens of tho place. The Circumstances are as 
f ollows: - 

Reports of the disturbances in other places had reached tho Christ- 
'.ans in Kyumipo but thoy had not taken any etej: to raise a distur- 
bance in their town but had refrained from lending any countenance 
to the work. The police knew that this was true for they had made 
;articular inquiries of the Christians as to their knowledge of what 
vas going on elsewhere and whether they had received any instructions 
to get out and shout "Uansei". They replied to the police that they had 
hsard rumors of what was going on elsewhere but had had no coBimunications 
whatever and did not plan any demonstration. 

On Monday, the Srd, which was the day for the memorial service 
for the late emperor, some of the officers and the school teachers 
got the children together and hold a memorial servioo. They had invited 



30 

a policeman to be present to remove any suspicion that they were plan- 
ning anything wrong. The police was present and sat through the ser- 
vice. 

The people of the twon had heard what was going at other places 
and that the Christians were hack of it and that consequently they 
were anxiously waiting, expecting the Christians to take the lead in some 
sort of demonstration and when the latter did not show any inclination 
to do so they wore disappointed and began to abuse the Christians, 
calling them cowards and lacking in patriotism. 

On Monday the villagers decided to wait no longer and so a crowd 
of them assembled in the main street in front of the home of one of the 
olders and commenced to shout "Mansoi". The police had been anticipat- 
ing some such an outburst and had their men in readingsa and came out 
with their guns and 3abres and also telephoned for the firemen* to 
join them. The latter came on the run with their hooks and sticks and 
in a short time the crowd was dispersed, the villagers taking to their 
heels as soon as the police and firemen appeared. 

After the crowd had dispersed, the Japanese firemen and police said: 
"The Christians are responsible for this disturbance. Let us go up the 
Mil and destroy their church." So they rushed up the hill back of the 
town and began to destroy the church. They broke all the glass and the, 
window frames in the building, broke one of the stoveB and the pulpit, 
tore down the bell and brokex it to pieces. Set fire to the church in 
two places on the inside and one on the outside but either they put out 
the fires themselves or they went out by themselves for they did nothing 
more than sordes the building in several placos. 

There was a lean too roof at one end of the building where the 
structure is two stories high. They pulled the supports from this roof 
and let it fell down against tho wall whore it is still hanging. 
They then went to the school building near by and smashed all the doore 
and windows of this building. 

Mr. Welbon and I went down there recontly anrt took a photograph 
of the building and if it turns out well will includo with this report. 

The police expressed their sorrow that the church building had been 
damaged by the Japanese and asked the officers of the church to bring in 
a statement of the amount of the loss suffered. Thoy have done so but 
there is no disposition on the part of the police officers to secure 
damages. 

Up to the present time none of the Christians in the place have 
had anything to do with the agitation and the police know it. But three 
of the officers, one elder and two leaders, recently made a contribution 
of money, as they say, for tho rolief of tho Christians throughout the 
country who have suffered loss of property on account of thi^ agita- 
tion and aro in hard circumstances. The police say that it wa3 for 
the propaganda fund which has been raisod by the Koreans all over the 
country. Which is the correct statement I do not know but anyhow the 
three men have been arrested and are now in xg prison here in Pyongyang. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Signed C ,F.T3ernbeisel . 

Pyeng Yang, April 20th, 1919 

AMERICAN I/.I3SI0NARY TELLS HOV< HIS -IPi' WAS STRUCK 3Y HUH -LIKE S0LDI3RS 

(Peking Daily News, Apr. 13,1919) 

(The following letter was sent to the CooulPress, the only English 
newspaper published in Korea, and representing the Japanese official view 
of things. It was in answer to an article in that paper, on the "Stories 
of Cruelty", which said that "Koreans are great liars. !l It shows what mis- 
sionaries have seen in Korea, his own wife having been struck by Japanese 
soldiers. The Seoul Press would not publish this letter, however, for they 
dislike foreign comment.) 

In tho Seoul Tress of this date tharc is an article on "Stories of 



31 

"Cruelty", xk± Granted the "Koreans are groat liars" ( "All men are liars* it 

has been said) the missionaries, *I am sorry to cay, have seen things with 
their own eyes. Unarmed Koreans have aeon shot, many of them in the hack; 
o I chrome u have been beaten without mercy, girls have been tied by their hair 
and beaten; men have been beaten on the baok of the head untill for days k 
and weeks they have little sense left. On the 3rd of March ay wife was go- 
ing to the Woman's Hospital in She passed several soldiers and they 

said nothing. Then she came to one by himself. Be ordered her to go back. 
In obedience to him she turned about, and then he struck her two sharp 
blows in the baok with the butt end of his gun. This is the work of the 
Hun and of the Japanese as we supposed they are. My fear is that same of 
the stories I cannot tell here, that unsophisticated countrymen and especi- 
ally women have told right out without being asked, have more truth in them 
than some of us wish. It will be to the good of the fair name of Japan not 
to attempt to cover up any of these things. The crowds were absolutely 
unarmed and for the most part did not attempt to use force. The use of 
force came only after the soldiers, and even worse than soldiers, the fire- 
men with long clubs with the sharp iron hooks on the end, had begun to deal 
with crowds with uncalled-for cruelty. It almost seemed that the Japanese 
were scared almost to death themselves by the crowd of people by the 
crowd of the people who were not even trying to use force and had absolute- 
ly nothing to fight with. I am speaking of what I saw in —where it seems 
to me there was no call for the fierce methods that were used on the 
crowds even here in the city. And the things done here are not to be com- 
pared with the things done in the country sections. If the plan was to 
scare and co* the people they havd succeeded. But that success is fail- 
ure. The Japanese will never win the people , will never the task they are 
hero for in that way. The officials surely know the day and age is which 

we are living 

"Row the time for action has come for Japanese in Forea. Whatever 
may have been the dreams for conquest and of assimilation and absorption, 
now the strong muet help the weak; those who have for those who have not, 
a plan of absolutely unselfish action towards the Koreans must be really 
put into operation, We read that General Pershing once risked his own 
life in on effort to unarm a misguided Fhlllphine Islander, instead 
of shooting him down. This is the stuff which males a man in these 
days. The strong to use their strength to save and guide the weak 
aad ignorant, not to do the easy thing of shooting them down. Some of us 
have thought that Japan was of this kind. These recent events have 
saken our faith. We might as well be frank about the matter. Now we are 
wondering if Japan will go to Europe to see the Hun and Belgium, and 
then take a look at some of the strong who have used their strength not 
as masters but as servants. She stands "at the cross-roads" and those 
of us who are giving our lives that this garden spot of the world may 
be a fit plaoe for men and women to live in, a fit places for little 
children to grow up in, can not help but think of the iaiaortal words of 
Lowell . 

'Once to every man and nation comes the moment to decide. 

In the strife of truth with Falsehood, for the good or evil aide.' 

On that decision depends not only the fate of the Koreans but 
of Japan herself. A good friend of mine said that the Koreans will 
either be assimilated or be made serfs. What the Koreans become, the Jap- 

ese will be Will the Japanese and Koreans, whom God has seen 

fit to set side by side, be men, true men together? The answer to this 
depends largely upon Japan's decison at this momentous hour, way she 
beHme enough, and brave enough and self-sacrificing enough, to moke 
the right decision." 



32 

THEOLOGICAL SiiiilttAHY LiEN BEATEN, 
ryeng Yang, Korea, Tuesday March 4, 1919. 

About 12.30 noon, Tuesday, liarch 4th five seminary 3tudents from 
Fyeng Sang Province were arrested at the I resbyterian Theological 
"senary Dormitories. They were Pak Tuk II, Pay Yung Hong, pak Moon 
Cian, Yun Bong Nam, and Fai Eun Hi, all from Kyeng Sang Province. Of t 
t:iose, two men, Pak Moon Chan and Yun Bong Ham were in their rooms when 
t ie police came, where the others were standing outside their rooms watching 

l demonstration on the Seminary hill. They were all taken to the police 
iiiadouarters and "beaten, four of them receiving 29 strikes each and one 
: 7. Besides this each one, each time during the heating that he moved, 
ccuirmed or made a noise, was struck on the head and other parts of the 
i'cy in order to give full measure. The prisoners were stripped and the 
"bitting was done on then bare buttocks. The platform on which the beat- 
^..•g was done was in the form of the cross. This form wa3 not a specially 
-.epared one for the occasion but is the form used for all official padd- 
i.iigs. It is a convenient one, that is all. But to one of the men beat- 
er., the form of the cross was called to his attention and he was told that 
a. his Lord had had to bear his cross, so as a disciple he would have to 
Lour a cross this day. So the police did see the possible connection that 
the world might *oceive of in the form of the platform. 

The beating for the most part was performed by Japanese policemen. 
One of the men reported that a Japanese police man had laid on about half 
-the strokes when a Korean was ordered to complete the operation. But as 
the Korean was too easy on him, they replaced him with another Japanese. 

Asked as to why they were beaten they were told that they had broken 
the law for the Preservation of the Public Peace and that the punishment 
for this for the slighter offences was beating. They asked in what way 
they had broken this law, seeing that they had neither had a part in 
the demonstrations nor had been with the ones demonstrating. 

The five men were interviewed by four missionaries at 11.30 
on Wednesday morning in their rooms at the Dormitory. Pak Tuk 111 was se 
weak at the time that he had to be supported by his companions in order 
to ait up and tell the story. He showed the injured parts to the mission- 
aries and the sight was enough to make a man's blood boil. Fully one squa- 
re foot of the flesh had been beaten and b*uiced, the injury going deeply 
into the flesh. Nothing but the nicest application of the rod could have 
produced such a result without terribly lacerating the flesh. Two other 
uen were in very great dispress and only one of the five was able to 
hobble across the compound to attend the opening session of the Seminary 
that morning. 

DETAILED ACCOUNT OF THE BEATING. 

Pak Tuk II, aged 40, for years a helper in the Taiku City Hospital, 
Arrived in Fyeng Yang Tuesday morning at 5 a.m. after stopping one 
day in £eoul. Living in the Kyeng Sang Dormitory, Tuesday noon he was 
standing by the Chul'.a Province Dormitory when a demonstration on the Sem- 
inary hill drew the attention of the police. He and two others saw the 
dangeraTUt and starred foi their roji^s, rralkin^ leisurely. The police seized 
hi», charged him viLth ci-siicity, av! after argument led him off to the 
police station. He wa& condemr.ed 'c* b -i ting for disturbance of the peace 
and given 29 stroked. A Japanese pclioemaa sdminsyored 10 or 12 of these 
but tiring, gave way to another, a Krroan policeman. But it was evident 
that the Korean did not exart himself so a Japanese took his place and 
completed the performance . He was also beaten on the hoad and in other 
places whenever he soji-rned or protested, after the beating he was re- 
leased and allowed to go. His buttocks wore a solid sore, though the skin 
outwardly was not broken so far as could be seen. The injured area was 
fully one square foot. Mr, pak said that he had no connection with the 
crowd, did no yelling at the time, had not yelled at any previous time, ■ 
was not near the demonstrators when arrested, made no attempt to run, but 



ri a 



33 

-r^r, quietly going to his, roonu He was in such ptain that he could not Bit 

At(s H<»n£, used 25. A helper m*tLthe Taiku jborritory. 
sked why ho crime to Pyeng Yang. Ho anewevred as all five men did 
*dy in the Theological 3«iininnry. whereupon the examiner' i 



"Are ycyxx a Christian"? Wi he r 
•as Christ had to bear his cress 
?hall» receive 20 strokes. *Tfce i 
■ * v^eeted by the chape of the pie 
man doing the beating for Bom 
: ceived actually 27 etrokee besi 
crte of the body for full nea&ur 
? :\x Sun Hi, . a^ed about 20, 

His 'account was similar to Pak Ti 
:ie and Pak Yung Hong seemed to be su: 
fun Bong Ham, aged 40. 

Was in hie room at eh© time of tJ 
entered with drawn swerde and compel: 
•-'one argument . Received 29 stroLec. 
l ;:ik iloon Chan, a^ed about 40. 

We in his room at the tjcio of th< 
iitered with drawn eworde and forced 



ma ask 



he th 



jxe liking if it could be o 



all laug] 



He was &iv 



in tne QiT»irKi<*i 
i will have to 
ce to the cross 
on which the bei 
ion counted inco, 
atin^i over the I 



uineir' oxcXulined 
70 he v^as told, 
r yours. You 
as without qxiaatior. 
ing was done, 
ectly and ke 
ad and other 



5 Hon<s f a. He ruceivad 29 strokes. 
*rin^ less tnon the others. 



d< 



:tration ? but the police 
to &o to the station, after 



d to be au 



a r.reat deal 



but the police 

the Station 



A 4- 



deci{*nstrat'i 
to go wit 

He replied that it would 



a policemen standing 



KOREAN IBHEPJaHBBMCB 

gB&IHBIWG 
MABCH 1st., 1919. 

Pii.l;T 1 1 . 
IIS OBItilH toliD CAUSE. 



Al 



TEH HEASGBB YiHY KOftEA SHOULD 3^ LI3EEATED. 

1. Because Japan guaranteed the independence and integrity of Korea 
by the Treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895. 

2. Because Japan went to war with 3uss>ia in 1904 expressly to jre- 
serve the independence of Korea s.ni the peace of the Far East. 

3. Because America guaranteed tha integrity of Korea by the treaty 
Of 1882. , 

4. Because Forea was neither conquered nor won by Japan. She was only 
cheated and robbed of her independence. Should it be said that 
Japan will liberate Korea if Prance gives up Annam, America the 

Philippines ceded to America by Spain, and Great Britain India, which 
waB won by the British while Buma wa3 conquered, Korea's case is 
quite different. Japan has, therefore, no claim on r.orea. 

5. If the civilized world has any regard for the principles for which 
they have made the immense sacrifices, the/ inust press on Japan to 
liberate Lorea at once . 

S. Because Korea, a nation with a splendid civilisation extonding back 
4000 years, is beinj emasculated and oppressively governed. The 
nation is on the verge of being extinct, and the cry of 20,000,000 
will not leave humanity at rest unless justice is done to her 
now and at once. 

7. If the Allies have restored the Gzecho Slovaks to independence 
after so many centuries of slavery, and forced Germany to vacate 
Belgium, Serbia, etc., why should poor Korea's case be neglected? 

8. Korea being the bey to the Far Eastern nations, if she is not lib- 
erated now, Asia will have strong reasons to doubt the sincerity 

of the VTestern peoples and may thiuk that the >7est has got a double 
standard of justice, one for Asia and another for Europe. 

9. Truth must be respected above all if the Allies wish to "make the 
world a decent place to live in" and justice done to Korea, or we 
will have reasons to conclude that the Wast is afraid of Japan and 
shirks her great responsibility to Asia. 

10 . Because it is absolutely necessary to avert another great wac if 
Korea is not restored to independence and the Far East thus left in 

the same condition in which the Balkans were before the vrar. Bemember 
the same results follow when the same conditions exist. 

Memorandum of program of proceedure . 

1. Interview the delegates of the different natioas at the Conference 
and secure sympathy and support for the Korean cause. 

2. Interview influential men who are now gathered in Paris in an un- 
official capacity in connection with the Peace Conference. 

3. Present in an intelligent way the condition of affairs in Korea 
under the Japanese military rile, politically, oconouically, educa- 
tionally and religiously. 

4. Show the ulterior aim of Japan towards Korea and the Koreans. 

5. £jho7T Japan's ulterior aim in the Far East regarding j, : anchuria, Si- 
beria, Shantung, Yangtze Valley, Fuhien, Sian, the Philippines, the 
South Sea Islands and India. 

6. Show that Korea is the key to the Far Eastern Question historically, 
geographically, strategically. 

7. Get the sympathetic cooperation of the influential and responsible 
pressmtn of America, England, Fiance and Italy and. create a world- 
wideopinion regarding the necessity of Korea's liberation. 

8. Use all the influential organs cf America, England, France, Italy and 
China in informing the world of Koiea's present condition and creat- 
ing sympathetic opinions of the worlds statesmen and diplomatic leaders 
and the peoples of the iiffereat nations. 

9. Open press bureau in Paris, London. Ken York, San Francisco, Shanghai, 
etc. and use all other possible methods of publicity either directly 
or indirectly. Keep the East informed of what is taking place in the 
opinions of the Western countries regarding the Far Eastern Question 



and inform the tfest of what is^actually talcing place la the Sa^t. 

10. ^;ork a propaganda distributing literature and illustrated leaflets 

11 Snow conclusive reasons why Korea should oe independent and how the 
Koreans are capable of governing themselves. . ' th 

12 Make an official demand for representation and recognition at the 
P^e^ouference andn formal petition for the liberation of Korea 
with concieive but comprehensive memoranda. 

KOHUPi/ SUTffiAl rJffi&iDBHT ulL&Ofi TO Ali) -.Old*. --BC0B2 

HLE L1BSRTY. „ „„,. 

Peking, Feb. 29, 1919 
Letter from Korea Independence Committee ask Korea's cate he 
placed by Wilson before Paris Conference — Recounts Japanese Hal- 
Administration . 

The following is a translation of a setter which r.as been pre- 
sented to the American Minister by Chao Yu-fu, Chi Tien-fu and other 
members of the Korean Independence Committee who represent the Korean 
people living in China. _ w,* 

The petition, it is understood, was presented some time ago cut 
was not disclosed until today when representatives of the Korean 
Committee gave copies of it to a local news agency. The letter roir 
lows : - 

Tent of letter* 

Your ElxcQXXsncy * ~ 

We Koreans who are exiles in China respectfully, with tears of 
blood, present our case to the American liinister in China and ask 
his aid in our behalf. 

Following the violent seizure of Korea by Japan the Korean 
people were nearly exterminated. How by the grace of God, the European 
war has been ended, and the powerful monster has been deetroyea. 
The great President of your country, upholding human rights, has de- 
clared that people have the right of celf determination. From the 
depths of their bitterness, the Korean people look up to him with 
sincere gratitude and beg Your Lxcellency to convey to your govern- 
ment our prayer that the Peace Conference take up the problem °r 
bettering the condition of our voiceless nation which contains twenty 
million oppressed people. ^ . _ 4 . 4 . i „„ 

Accompanying the petition is a ver„' interesting document setting 

forth the Korean claims. It is as follows: 

1. For four thousand years following its foundation Korea was 

an independent nation. This statement is borne out by history. 

2. The Kingdom of Korea, during the last few hundred years of 

its exittunce, paid tribute in native produce to China but China did 
not interfere in the internal administration of the country, which 
had its own administration and was entirely independent. 

3. On the pretext of the independence of Korea Japan Trent to 

war with China in 1394 and 1895. The treaty of Shimonoselii admitted 
the independence of Korei which was also recognised by uhe various 
foreign pov/ers. Japan's assistance to Korea was only a pretext for 
the purpose of robbing Korea. 

4. A~ain in 1?04 whon Jatian "/ent to war with Russia she de- 
clared that the war was being fought to maintain the independence 
of Korea. 

3A2&B VIOLATES TREATY. 

5. Japan suddenly annexed Aorea in 1910, abandoning all national 
honor and in violation of treaty obli ations. The act was a total 
defiance of all moral ormoiplet. That was in the a^e when mignt 
made right and no nation offered cuiy objection or extended any pity 
to Eore&. 



A3 

6. Unckr pressure from Japan the insane Emperor of Korea gave up the 
sovoMignlty of the country. . „ . + i . ht _ t 

7. Only one nan, the traitor Li Uanyung, knew anything about this act. 
How can one man privately give aw a nation to "»^°»' t g . 
it a thing to be pawned? This is not the action cf a nation but of a 

8. MiW around the Korean Emperor' s palace ^J******^ In- 
modle ariay and numberless spies were placed every where to terrorize to 
the Koreans. If a Korean said that he did not approve of the Konea- 
tion he was beaten and cursed by the eolOiere. Some put to death 
because they dared to speak their indignation and Japan defamed -*ff* 
memory by saying they had been executed as robbers. 'That a traggayi 

9. plying well for them* Ja^.an bought the traitors of Korea but many 
refusfd to accept the filthy money and those who could not be bought 

were lupris0 ^ 1 e iL - UllX . AmlI1 j IST j iATI0I j 0P KOI-iLA BY JAPAN . 

1, Korean Christians have been singled out for Persecution 

They have been oppressed, falsely accused and put to death while the 
Christian re] . O iofi has been attacked. Men of great learning have 
Seel Lhe°Christian S thus persecuted. Lvery kind of punishment 

has been used to force Koreans to abandon their religion, carxsi;- 
ians have been compelled to registoi themselves as such and secure 
apecial certificates permitting then to practice their religion. 
Permission had to be secured to open Christian chapels and in count- 
less other ways have the followers of Christianity been oppressed. 

2. The lauds belonging to the Imperial estates of Korea were worked 
by the email farmers. But after annexation these lands were taken 
over by a Japanese Colonization Society, the Korean farmers were 
dispossessed and Japanese settled in their places. Their means 

of livelihood gone the Korean farmers were compelled to emigrate 
from their old homes to iianchuria, a land of heavy snows and bitter 
frosts, where hundreds died from starvation and cold. This, the 
punishment of slaves, may be our due but we cry out to Heaven against 
the bitterness of our distresa. 
3 The Japanese have encouraged Korean sons to dissipate family 
fortunes, have instigated litigation between fathers and sons so 
that family fortunes may be wiped out and all Koreans reduced to 
poverty. 

IlttiOSjaiTY ilNCWi R/.oLDj 

4. The Japanese have encouraged immorality by removing the Korean 
marriage restrictions and allowing marriages without formality 
and without regard for age. There have been marriages at as 

early an age as twelve. Since the annexation there have been 80,000 
divorce cases in Korea. The Japanese encourage, as a source of reve- 
nue, the sale of Korean wootitutes in Chinese cities, r.ost oi these 
prostitutes are only fourteen or fifteen years of age. it is a part 
of the Japanese policy of race extermination by which they hope to 
destroy all Koreans. May God regard these facts! 

5. The Japanese Government has established a bureau for the 

> scale of opiu^ and under the pretext that opium was to be usea lor 
medicinal purposes has caused Koreans and x'oxuiosons to engage in 
poppy cultivation. The opium secretly shipped into china. Be- 
cause of the Japanese encouragement of this traffic many Koreans 
become use re of the frug. 

6. The Japanese forbid any school courses for Koreans higher 

than the Middle school end the higher schools established by miss- 
ionary orgainzations are severely regulated. The civilization of 
the Far TSast originateo in China and was brought flrat to Korea and 
thence to Japan. The ancient books were more numerous in Korea than 



C4 

in Japan out after annexation the Japanese set about destroying 
these hooka so that Koreans should not he ahle to learn them. This 
"Burning of the 3ooks and Lurder Oi the Literati ■• was for the pur- 
pose of debasing the Koreans and robbia them of their ancient cul- 
ture . 

OTuin OPPiG^SiOW . 

The countless other forms of oppression and mal -administration 
which have distinguished Japan's rule in Korea are fully known to 
all foreign consular officials and to the missionaries who live in Korea. 

How can our race avoid extermination? Even if the government 
pf Japan were benevolent how could the Japanese understand the aches 
and pains of another race of people? v.ith her evil government can 
there be anything but racial extermination for us? 

In Divine pity heaven ordained the end of the European War and 
His Excellency President V/ilson in support of the principle ordained 
by Heaven has declared that races of people have the right to self- 
determination. Hence we Koreans appeal to you to place our present 
miserable condition before the peace conference that we may be able 
to enjoy the blessings of liberty and national sovereignty. 



,ie proclaim herewith, ^orea an independent state and her people 
free. We announce it to the nations of the world, and so make known 
the great truth of the equality of all humanity. We also make it 
Known to our posterity for ten thousand generations that they may 
nold this right as a free people for all time. V-ith the authority 
and dignity of 5000 years of history and the devotion and loyalty 
of 20,000,000 of people back of us we make this proclamation. Thus 
we take this responsibility on behalf of the eternal freedom of our 
people . 

In order that we may move in accortt with the opportune for- 
tunes of a new era, when the conscenoience of humanity has become 
awakened, we so act. It is the evident command of God. The trend of 
the age in which we live, the natural step in accord with the right 
of all people to live and move together. There is nothing in all 
the world that should prevent or stan:! in its way. 

Victims of the inherita-uee of an ancient age of plunder 
and brute force, we have come ior the first time in our history of 
thousands of years, to taste for a decade the bitter experience of 
oppression by an alien race. How great a loss to the right of exis- 
tence, what a hinderauce to the development of the mind; what damage 
to the honor of our people; what a lack of opportunity, by any origin- 
ality of our own, to contributo to, or aid in the onward march of 
civilization. 

If we would rid ourselves of resentment over the past; if 'e 
would be free from the agony of the present; if we escape violance 
for the future; if we would awaken again the conscience of ov.r peop- 
le, now oppressed, or rouse the fallen state to a true endeavor; if 
we would rightly develop character in every man; if wo would not 
pass on to our unfortunate children an inheritance of shaue and dis- 
tress; if future generations for all title would enjoy the perfections 
of blessings, we mut>t, first and foremost, secure couplete independence 
for our people. 

Let every soul then of our twenty sillione of people, in this 
day when human nature and the conscience of the times, as soldiers 
Of right and defenders of humanity, aid us, go forth with sword in 
heart . If we do so we can break down all opposing forces 
and pushing forward obtain the object of our desire. 

We do not wish to find fault with Japan, ?*ho made so favorable 
a treaty with us in 1676 for her insincerity in breaking, time and 
again, this and that provision of that same solemn agreement; nor to 



A5 . 
,laae her for lack of i-onesty, uhnn her l^eratii, ^eakiaj fron the 
platform, and her officials, by then acts, count tho inheritance of 
our fathors as a colony of the own or treat our civilization as 
thouS "e were lavage^ only to he satisfied when they beat us into 
submission, and put to Shane the foundation of our society and our 

best cental endeavours. , . 

We. who have special need to reprimand ourselves, ehonlu spend no 
time on the faults of others; wo, who need to organise the present 
sSuld not watte a Minute in 'finding fault with the pant, our responsib- 
ility today is to establish ourselves, and not to pullothers *om. 
\t line wUh the dictates of a clear conscience, our duty is to break up 
the fallow ground of our new destiny, and not for a laomant, thru long 
smothered resentment, or pas^in^ an^er to spitefully attu^r. ox oner 
opposition. . . + . 

Our wish is to move the Japanese (Vovernaont, oounu as it 16 
by old ideas at.d past day influences, a victim of the love of fame 
that acts and manifests itself by the unnatural and unreasonable 
ways of error, to change to something better, and by a straight road 
and natural and reasonable way, return to the place of maocsnce. 

The result that '-.'as brought about without any request on 
the part of our people, has meant oppression, used as time serving 
tieasui-e, impartially, statistics, based on false figures, intended to 
show the reverse of what is really true in a profit and loss account 
between our two peoples. Thus the farther they _o the deeper they 
di ' a trench resentment between us that no reconciliation can 
brid'e over. Behold the result today. Let the courageous make 
right what is wrong, and by a correctly ordered comprehension based 
oa sympathy, open up a new sphere of kindly relationship, thus put- 
tin^ misfortune away and brin G in blessing between us. is this not 
what she especially needs to realize? 

*he holding under of 20,000,000 people, filled with anger 
and bursting with resentment will not only be a cause of distur- 
bance to the peace of the Far East, but will, the father it goes, 
increase, as well, fear and suspicion of the Japanese, on the part 
9 f the center of neace and danger of the Par rast, the four hundred 
millions of China", and will undoubtedly result in calling down on 
the whole of East Asia the sad fate of universal destruction. 

Thus our independence today while it means a right honor 
due Korea, means at the sane tine the departure of Japan from an 
unjust way to one where sho truly assumes the great responciuilj.ty 
of protector of the Far East as well as removin froa China those 
dieturbin, fears, that she cannot escape even in her dreams. It 
means, too, a stepping stone to the peace and happiness 01 the whole 
world of humanity, with regards to the peace of the 



uaportant a part of the whflo L^* 06 01 Far Ea8t as so 

rests on any trivial emotions ' * y n ° aeans a ^stlon that 

refined, cl fl ^K u ^ The mind oAuma'nity 

gins to oast the morninS liiht y the ages of the past, now oe- 

of the race, A ww^orfri ftLl 6 ne ^ civilization on the history 
to awaken, 'as iSwo^rSfe^ lllVat 75™ and a11 life ha8 *^ 
and .arm sunshine, tho y return t Q P ?7£f °£/? c • 8eaoon of »« w iad a 
restoration of the world ano^he turn of Vjff ' S ? 5 Wh ° behold ««• 
I error* without hesitation^ rosorce 6 tid0 ° f toe a « e ' ste P 

oatiSSn^ f ° y £f V* ET* 1 ^ let *° find 

can alone satisfy the heart lU rt*' doTelo P" i e that originality that 

forth in the- great world^ooded ^VtbTM S* PC ° Ple Wo0m 

We now arise in nower rvT" 1=ae light of spring, 

accompanies us. £ w ££ ou ? * S ?" nc V s witil U3 > and truth 

old nest of gloom, into an Ictiv?tv 1 ? otlon n ? f a S e or sex from the 
a joyous resSrrectio^ The spirits of £ X crea "on attains to 

unseem, while the fortunes of th« »n^ PreC ? edln£ generations aid us 
beginning means the S 00^^ fr0 ? •«■»*. The 

press forward to the light S£t Sel htfore' iS t0 

2— Our work todav -i« „v 10+ THEEE ITmS CF AGREEMENT. 
truthThu^anityfTifl ho^/ 6 ^ 1 ? 7 0uld daaand ia *<*alf of 
dependence only anl not the soiri? ™ US miiifeat spirit of In- 
2- liven to the last m£n and ? P1 ?*! opposition, 
show forth defint^l^s^rthouglr* let 6Vary 0119 

rtSt^^^^g*"*-'. - that our 
selves ae right. a8r every circumstance, command them- 



Tho 4252 year of the kingdom of Chosenf Korea} 
Bepresentatives of the people? 1 } 
33 names follow. 

THE GRIEVANCES OP THE KOBEJI PEOPLE 
and 

THE HAD GOVERNMENT Of JAPAN 
Issued by the 



ORGANIZING COMMITTEE OF THE INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT . 

U JaSWSJS SS°S? Japan** ~ *** tha * —XI 

a MeioS^f^LeT^ovtrn^nrerten^ tW ° » a "°»aliti e s for it has 
part of that period Korea sent ?ribu^ 4 ? 00 yeara - » 
was nothing more than an outward ? the J= ourt of China hut his 

tto Imperial ftoiS of ?Se ?wo the rela tion between 

sion of our Korean race and was never under XT "?* toe SOle 5 ° 8808 - 

foreign nation or government never uater the actual control of any 

she i!'?iSK?s,B?ai?yffla T e *™ 

covered by the civilisation s£e rece^el flL and ^ nd could ^ »« 
centuries of past. Her custo^n hrl Tf ? ? m Kor6a Qnd chiB a during the 
to her through Korea of ut i r ^terature, her very clothin-r came 
of a Westernisation- thus^f^f ° flas add « d to thfse "e'fee^owder 
East She gives no evidence of m^ra? for^ T ^1°* *°*<*™*° of the 
tion have proved her to be the embolLi^ ^ her ?° tl011 s towards our na- 
complete that the ^l^^^W.l 



A? 

ossibility . 

I. There are five comppicuous injustices on the part of Japan towards 
Korea. 

1. THE DOG- BUG A'fU. UnKi Oi' ulk aUO FiS li.'. AS an outcome of 
the Chtna-Japan wax in ltS'jO Japan aoleuuly acknowledged the independence 
pf Korea, and great Britain, the United Gtatea, France, Germany and Rus- 
sia have repeatadly acknowledged it also. In proof of this Japan and 
the other countries named, signed treaties guarantee ia^ this independen- 
ce. The Korean people rejoiced in this and entered heartily upon the 
fask of reform and national development. Unfortunately at this, time Ru- 
ssia began to move her force southward and threatened the people of the 
Orient and the safety of Korea. As a counter-move Japan made an alliance 
with Korea and opposed Russia with military iorce. True to the close re- 
lationship entered upon with Japan the whole Korean nation gave of her 
best, either by financial aid or physical labor, and in matters of trans- 
portation the Japanese armies were faithfully and honorably treated. A 
large part of the campaign took place on Korean territory and as a result 
of this co-operation Japan was victorious over Russia. But when the war 
yjas concluded Japan revealed her cruel intention of devouring the whole 
pf Korea and finally, by personal threats addressed to our Imperial 
family, and by the action of the traitor Yi V'anyun^, the articles of 
annexation were obtained. 

2. 2~sidL*Ai PH0MISI.G. It is very eloarl„ stated in the articles of 
annexation that Japan shall pay great honor to the Imperial family of 
Korea and shall preserve the n Jatt of the Korean people. But what has 
happened? She has abolished our Imperial family and lias made of the 
whole of Korea a dumpin -groun£ for her own overflow population. This 
cannot be hidden from the eyes of the nations. 

3. MAL-ABuIHISTBATIOr! OF THE LAV/E . Our people are of a peaceful 
disposition but this i3 not reason for misrepresenting us as half ci- 
vilized. In the Law-Courts it is impossible for a Korean to obtain faith 
treatment when opposed to a Japanese, and when under police examination 
our people are called upon to endure suffering which cannot be described. 
There is a definite policy pursued for the depraving of our young people. 
Youn^, men who neither smoke nor drink are marked down as being obstinated 
and Anti-Japanese, and determined efforts are made to tu.dernine their 
principles. Under the pretence of clearing the tov/a of loafers many 
young men of high principal have 'oei,a arretted and attempts made to 
degrade them, -here are many such instances. 

4. Thii UnGTRUCi'lOil OF Ll3i2KlY. Liberty of speech uoes not exist. 
Mo Eoadct meeting of even ten or twenty persons can be held, no matter what 
Its purpose, without the presence of detectives who have authority to break 
up and disperse any gathering they choose. Lioerty of the prose is also 
denied. Ho newspaper or book is allowed to be published "out such as 
perplex and mislead the intelligence of the reader. The scheme of educa- 
tion is incomplete and inefficient. There is a determination to limit 

the knowledge of our students instead of oil tiva ting their intellects. 
X poisonous hand is plucking up the youn^, trees. 

5. Tin Alt ACTING- 01' 33 MEN. The Japanese have arrested those who 
signed the Manifesto of Independence on Jfcrch 1st. 1919. They have also 
arrested sever-1 hundreds of men as well as school-boys and school-girls 
who were indignant at the unjust treatment that the 33 men received. 
Ihese hundreds of people have been imprisoned and deprived of food for 
two and three da„s at a time, and they bear the marks of cruel in- 
justices. We appeal to humanity against our oppressors. They are worthy 
of punishment by God or righteousness, but we would rather pray for them. 
III. i'tii. iUifCufi. 0-'' Our preseut ucnonstrations and solemn Manifes- 
to have not been inspired by outside influences. They Sjring from actual 
apiritual forces, within our o'm nation. The Japanese government has 
offered money for information as to who are the ringleaders of this na- 
tional movement. They offer their rewards in vain, for the leader le God 
Himself and this movement i3 rooted in the hearts of 20 millions of the 
.Torean people. Sven our youth, our boys and girls, are glad to be 



A3 

arrested and imprisoned for this cause. They are too young to he im- 
pressed hy outside influences, they respond for the deep spiritual move- 
ments of our own united nation. 

We are convinced that this is our nation's opportunity for self 
expression and for the re-aasertion of the right to national self-deter- 
mination which Heaven bestowed upon us. This the time for our escape 
from the hands of the Japanese oppressors. V/e earnestly appeal to the 
nations of the earth to set a limit to our pitiful condition and to ob- 
tain for us the common rights of humanity. Our confidence and our prayers 
go out to Sod. Hear us, oh God, and deliver us from the oppressor for 
Thou art our strength and salvation. Our trust it the Thee, oh God our 
Helper! Amen. 

Pyengyang, Korea, 

March 10th, 1919 

(Copied from the China Press) 

Bear Sir:- 

An extremely serious situation and the impossibility of get- 
ting information regarding it out to the world through regular channels 
have induced me to send you word by indirect channels, hopin? that you 
will give the very greatest publicity to all 1 am writing. The American 
Counsul General in Seoul has sent cables to the American Government on 
the subject but I have grave doubts whether the Japanese have allowed 
them to go thru intact. Hence I am sending you a rather lengthy state- 
meat of the situation. 

Korean Insurrection - Its Origin. 

On the afternoon of karch 1st, an insurrection broke out simultan- 
eously in many parts of Korea, takin_ the Gorernment almost completely by 
surprise. On January 22nd the old ex-Emperor Yi passed awa r at his 
palace m Seoul. The circumstances of his death were wery peculiar which 
led to the report getting out among the people that he had committed sui- 
cide in order to prevent the consumatioa of the marriage of hie son 
prince Eon, to the Japanese Princess Neahimoto. This wedding had been 
scheduled for about Jan. 29th or one week after the death of the ex- 
Emperor. The prince had formerly bean engaged to a Korean girl but this 
engagement was forcibly borken off when the Prince was taken to Japan 
some years ago. The father of this girl is said to have died at almost 
the same time ana under the very same peculiar conditions attending the e x- 
Emperor's death (so-called apoplexy) and again it was reported that sui- 
cide had been the real cause of death. These circumstances have power- 
fully affectea the people throughout the whole country, and the old ex- 
Emperor, who had done everything a good rulor should not have done while 
he ruled, became a glorified and worshipped saint in his death. 

As you doubtless know, disaffected Koreans in America, Hawaii, Man- 
churia, China and Japan have kept up a constant agitation against Japan- 
ese rule in Korea ever since their occupation of the peninsula. About a 
month ago, some of these men came secretly to Korea and organized coamit- 

??* ^ eg i n Q novenent f or establishing independence. Thoir work was 
<pl6t and effective. Their plan was to begin with a"pasDive revolution". 
Ho one (even Japanese) was to be hurt. Ho property was to be destroyed or 
injured. A persistant passive agitation waa to be instituted and contin- 
ued until success attended their effort,,, if they were beaten, or impris- 
oned or even killed, they were to take their punishment without complaint. 
Hothing was to bo done to bring reproach upon the name of the Koreans or 
their movement. And I want to say here, that up to the present time, we 
have simply had to marvel at the restraint the people have shown under 
all the oppression and suffering they have had to endure. 

The Peace Conference too, has had a powerful influence upon the 
presant insurrection. President Hilson'e Fourteen Principles are all well 
tiSn^ SI?,,™?? 8 - 8 £ ucate f Koreans and the principle of ''self-determina- 
tion-, naturally, has made a atrong appeal to them, ay means of ^passive 



A9 

revolt the leaders 'believed that they could demonstrate to the peace 
Conference that lioroaa was not being ruled at the present time Dy a power 
■vhich Koreans wanted or believed in. In other words, by means of a pass- 
ive revolt they would demonstrate that they had not in the .oast been grant- 
eel the privilege of self-determination. 

At the saac time, in tcucway, a report gained currency that the 
Peace Conference had sent a special delegate to the East to examine into 
Eastern and especially Korean affairs to report to the conferi-nce. The 
Koreans were very anxious, therefore, that this delegate know how hitter 
7aa the feeling here against the Japanese. I can account for this report 
.inly on one way. Several weeks ago it was reported in the papers that 
l»f. John J. Abbot, representing large American banking interests, was coming 
to the East to investigate financial conditions in China. The Koreans 
ovidantly Believed that he was a representative dicpacched by the Peace 
Conference to investigate conditions in Korea. 

Another peculiar report which gave impetus to the movement includ- 
ed two parts. ?irst it was reporter that the Peace Conference had decid- 
ed to adjourn permanetly on March 88th. Second, that unless Korea did 
something before that date and obtained a hearing from the peace Confer- 
ence, there never would he another opportunity for it to do so. I cannot 
incount for the first of these in any way. The second was due to mis- 
' understanding. The Koreans 'believed that every political "sore" and dif- 
ficulty thru out the whole world was to he "aired" and rectiyied at the 
Conference, jnd they also believed that this conference was to settle 
all these questions no^ for time and eternity. They believed, that after 
the Conference adjourned no adjustments of national houndaties or sover- 
eignties would be possible. Hence this was a critical, a most critical 
time for all oppressed races. 

CERTA1I1 INTERNAL COJJBIIIQtg WOT GE3EHSLLY 

Biovm . 

Foreigners whose residence has heen in the East, but outside Japan 
proper, are generally well acquainted with Japanese dealings with other 
nations. The same method of intrigue, deception, Drovr-beating, and force 
nave been followed iu China, Formosa, iaiiuchuria, Korea and recently in 
Siberia. The people who have been so unfortunate as to cross their path 
iave invariably suffered. 3ut in all this they have been aaepts at "pull- 
ing the wool" over the eyes of those who come to the East for a "sight- 
see" . "e foreigners who live here are discredited because we do not laud 
-o the sky this miseraole business of deception. Tie condemn it and have 
condemned it, but without avail. Today I believe, our day has come, and 
we must speak again. 

Japan's occupation of Korea has been one long story of "putting the 
best foot forward". The Japanese have built fine public buildings, school 

buildings and roads. They have introduced imnroveuonts in agriculture. 
They have introduced afforestation on a large" 3cale. They have done scores 
of other things to fcrn mairyTfrro orjaaLEB^y benefit the country. For all these 
'.hey are to he commended and highly contended, tfe do not criticise them 
:'or what they have done, but should have done. I have never heard a Korean 
catalogue their grievances nor can I give them all. But the following are 
facts so well knoTm and so contrary to justice and right that they are a xmi 
terrterriole indictment of the Japanese rule in Korea. 



1. The country is ruled b„- the most autocratic military government 



— > A10 

the wnxld^ XJ^^J^-^ appeal _£rom its docisioas or laws to the par- 
i^t'LT^ ° r t? ^e ^Staperor. ^Che Governor General is as abeolute 
aa was the Czar m the balmiest days of-Caardom. T^^i^u^^HUy^lia 
•and prohibits every expression of freedom. It denies to the Koreans In- 
numerable personal rights, some which are enumerated "below. 

i. The Japanese Government in Korea has been a drute force. Not 
one ounce of love has teen shown. People are ruthlessly shot down and 
killed. For the smallest offences they are imprisoned for long terms. It 
xs a „ ru i® of force untempered by the smallest hit of love. 

°; Tn f;. Government has denied the Koreans the riwht of petition or" 
^ppeal. The very act of discussing or presenting an appeal has consti- 
tuted treason. Even conversation is listened to by hired spies to find 
who is thinking freely and one indiscrete expression has sent scores of 
men to prison for years of imprisonment. 

4. Although the Korean people is homogeneous, possessing a single 
«^ a J a "* Uaie '<i 1 " cro ** rc and authentis history extending back thou- 
itTn ™ ; '" ta ^- • he Ja P«»S? al> e denying them the right to use their own 
language in their own schools. They have tried to destory their histories 
?^f; C , ;-I- y ? artS .^°? tel1 of P^t difficulties hetwlenlorea and Japan! 
IZZ ':' e P r °frihed large numbers of the Korean literary works because 

SST m In T ?h' ^? a r^°t r . tll0 ^ t8 Whi ? are o^JeotioaaWe to the Japan- 
T^=t» I St P 0f ? ese they " ioh t0 uake * oim S ?orea speak only 

Ja ? dn6 t^ Ead ° S istories of Korea, and road and study, Japan- 
r*' :;r a 3^ to other words on the one hand by means of the Japanese 
i^fi°§S ': h 5 y have trle 1 d t0 assimilate the Korean people; while on the 

tho faJ^t^"^ 8 ?, C i a if tlle K ° r oans are treated just the same as 

the c??^ * J re , 1S n S disc ^aation of races. But how itle 

the claim As just one example of this, Koreans are unable to study in 
sc^f-V? 10 8 ^ 6 Ja P anose because the Government provisos special 

- fS'J ^f^ese and special schools for Koreans and the two ki ngs 
M- t .^ Jci*Tn"-i~ rea *^ Graduates from the Korean primary schools cannot 
en .w ^o Japanese middle schools. Graduates from the Korean middle 
sohooj.s cannot enter the Japanese higher schools. 

J Kfraaza are discriminated against in all official business. A 
XrJ^f^ryj orf . lce ^ have teen Siven Koreans but there is always a Jap- 
s'**-- '■"'••=•••■^3 wo has power to ve«o his chiefs acts. There is no rip- 
£^°?' ■• tlTfe council of State. There is no other means whereby the people 

a wco « the Government. There is no way by which they can 
:;;, ; T ; - LS ,: lea - ia 5 irom Parliament in Tokyo except through the Governor 
*° ??P°' rts everything from his own point of view. 

speaking, the Koreans are denied a share in the Govera- 

111 l^f matters again, gross injustice is and has been done the 
t', 7 r ^ Vast Crown Lands have existed here for a^es. Burning the Korean 
rile, these were rented to Koreans and the rent waS used to jay the ex- 
r^..? 1 *?^- Today the3e bem„ taken over by the Government as 
fcvorament Lands on the ground that they are to be sold or disposed 

d^n^^'v, ^ Sal9 0r lease is almost alwa y s t0 Japanese. The 
&LTf^T S haVE ln f COres of ^stances been the occupants of 
thesS lands for generations, but nevertheless they are d*iven out No 
remuneration is given. They uust go ouz ' N0 

toa^SSSSKiSr 9 i ar oe!y teon denied the privilege of travelling to 
rea^oS ?^tS™i" Passports have largely been denied regardless of the 
reasons lor travel, or have been so tardily issued as to constitute prohi- 

These and many other conditions exist and have existed for the^e 
ten years and there seems to be no intention on the part of the Govern- 
ment to correct them. Korea has not been held and administered R 



All 



benefit of the Koreans Taut for the benefit of the conquerors. Koreans 
i» bondage so hard and-uneudurable that insurrection oust break out con- 
tinually in the future. The amalgation and assimilation process is at 
an end. Bitterness between the two peoples is daily growing more pro- 
nounced. The passive revolution if continued long must deveia>pe into xaxK 
forceful resistance . 

PITITION 

To His Bxcellency Hasegawa: 

We out of the fulness of our hearts present this petition 
to Your Excellency. The proclamation issued on the first day of uarch 
and signed by 35 representatives of the Korean people is not based 
an the mind of a few only, but assuredly springs from the inner cons- 
ciousness of the whole nation and expresses their mind. W8 know that 
Jod gives it His approval. 

~e, the successors of the 33, speaking for the 20,000,000 of 
Korea make known this request and this desire. May Your Excellency 
bear in mind that re are not Koreans of -a former generation but men of 
the new a.je who know definitely the spirit of the times in which we 
live and the enlightened ways of civilizati.cn. The spirit of the new 
era moves us and witnesses to the right of the request we make. Civili- 
zation urge3 us forward and takes the responsibility for these thoughts 
of ours. Korean independence, therefore, which is the call of the 
people is in accord with right and the claim of humanity, as well as 
"in line with the trend of the age and thw good purpose of God. This 
we believe. 

May Your Excellency notice that the claim for independence affects 
not Korea alone, but unquestionable the peace of the whole Far East. 
Think it well over. When Korea was annexed, how was it announced to 
the world? Every announcement said that Korea was deficient in military 
-itrsngth and was at the mercy of larger states on either side, so that 
she was a source of unrest to the peace of Asia. Was this not the • 
reason for which Japan annexed Eorou? 1e pray Your Excellency to care- 
fully consider this. 

This new era in the world's history has put aside the military 
idsa to let truth and humanity rule. The law of might ia gone and 
and peace and truth are to the fore. Is this not so? Your Excellency, 
?e are not to assert our individual rights as a nation by force, but so 
base our claim for liberty and self-government on right and the appeal 
of humanity. Wherein does our proclamation of independence run counter 
to what it right and reasonable? Is it not most certainly true that the 
osace of the Par EaBt hangs on the independence of Korea? Ask China if 
r,hi3 be not ao! Ask Russia also! Yes, ask the whole world! Will any of 
chese say that this proposition runs counter to what is right? 

Your Excellency, good, enlightened and gifted with kingly wisdom, 
do not, we pray you, consider this as a light and frivolous matter and 
merely order it to cease. We assuredly have back of us 20,000,000 of 
Koreans, the founta in of whose thought will support our purpose and 
claims. We have besides no confidence in any, even the smallest weapon 
of force but in the law of right and humanity, which we will maintain 
to the very end until ire reach our object. If your Excellency resort3 
to military force in order to stop for the moment the fountain of truth 
and humanity, which is on our side, it will not only reflect on your 
enlightened spirit but will most evidently he a rejection on the honor 
aftd dignity of HEW JAPAN. Te therefore pray that YOUR EXCELLENCY will 
condescend to consider what we so earnestly request. 

EITI'flON PRESENTED 3Y Kill YOUN 5IE Al.'fl YI Y0LT:!Cr CHIOS TO THE 
GOVEIUIOi-. jLIiEliAL 

A way of doing things is good only as it accords with the times; 
and a government succeds only when it makes its people happy. If the 



A12 

way is not in keeping with the age, it is not a perfect way; and if a 
government fails to iaake a people nappy it is not a good government. 

It is now ten years since Korea was annexed to Japan, and 
though there has resulted from it no little profit to the people, 
with the clearing away of abuses, still it can not he said to nave 
made the people happy. 

Toda^ when the call for independence is given in the street ten 
tho-ieaiid"voices answer in reepoce. In tendays and less the whole 
nation vibrates to its echo, and ©von the women and children vie wish 
'Fen ciher to do in In the shout. When those in the front fall others 
i-«-hs the*r places with no foar of death in their hearts. What is the rea- 
son for such a state of affairs as this? Our view is that having home 
v ■ -i pain and stifled to the ppint of bursting and heing unahle to repress 
it further, at last they have found expression and .like the overflowing 
ol t>ie "bm -ho river them waves have broken all hounds and once having ta 
trcken av;ay. its power will brook no return. We call this an expression 
o/ the people, but is it not rather the mind of C-od Himself? 

Ihsre are two ways of treating the conditions today, one a kind 
war ar.a the other the way of repression. The liberal way should 
speak kindly, smoothe and comfort so as to remove fears and misgivin- 
gs But in that case there would be an end to the demonstrations. 
The use of force, on the other hand, that would cut down, uproot, beat 
to cieces, extinguish, will rouse it the more and never conquer its 
spirit. If you do not get at the cause you will never settle the matter. 

The people, now roused to action, desire to restore to them that 
they once possessed in order that the shame of their slavery be re- 
moved. They ''ave nothing but bare hands, and a tongue with whicH to 
speak the resentment which they feel. You can tell by this that no 
"■icked motive underlies their thoughts. 



w 



The good and superior man would pity and forgive such as this 
and view it with tender sympathy. We hear however, that the Govern- 
ment is arresting people right and left, till they fill the xf prisons. 

There they whip, beat and torture then until they die violent deaths 
beaaath it. The Government uses weapons till the d~ad lie side by 
si-je, and we are unable to endure the dreadful stories we hear. 

Bevertheless the whole state rises the more, and the greater the 
force used to put it down, the greater the disturbances; How comes 
it that you look not to the cause but think to cut the manifestation 
of it by force? Though you cut down and kill those who rise cvery- 
ihiii where, you nay change the face of thiags but the heart never. Every 
wa has written in his soul "Independence" and those in their rooms 
shout for it are beyond the pos3ijility of numbering. Will you arrest 
and kill them all? 

A man is not like something to be dealt with as the grass that 
grows. In ancient times kencius said, to Eing Soon of the Chj King- 
dom. "If by taking possession of the state you can make the people 
j p Yun hap-oy, take possession, but if by taking possession you will 
rsaaer them miserable, forbear to do it. "The Mencius thus spoke, the 
Siig paid no attention, and as a result, came to a place where he said 
he vas -'rsatly ashamed. This is indeed a mirror from history worthy 
to be looked into. Even the Sage cannot run counter to the tines in 
which be lives, ^e read the mind of God in the attitude of the people. 
If a people are not made happy history telle us that there is no way 
by which their land can be held in possession. 



A13,14 



V7o, your servants, have come on these times of danger and difficul- 
ty. Old and uhomeless arc v/e, for yh.cn our country was annexed, we 
accepted the rank of nobility, hold office and lived in disgrace, till 
seeing these innocent people of ours in the fire and wator, are un- 
able to endure the sights longer, Thus we tv/c , in the privacy of our 
rooms have shouted for independence just like the others. 

Fearing not .presumption on our part, we spoak forth our hearts 
in the hope that 'your Excellency will be in accord herewith and let 
His Imperial Majesty know so that the Cabinet may consider it and 
set right the cause, not by mere soft -nerds, nor by fores, but 
in accocd with the opportunity that Heaven above grants and the 
wishes of the people speak. Thus may Japan give independence to 
Eorea and let her justice be known to the vlfaole world including 
those nations vrith whom she is in treaty rolations. Undoubtedly all 
will unOx look with praise and commendation on this act of yours. 

^e, the servants, behind closed doors, ill and indisposed, and not 
knowing the nind of the world, offer our poor woodman's counsel to 
the State. If you accede to it, countless Lumbers of people will be 
made happy. But if you refuse, we two alone will suffer, wo have 
reached the bourne of life and so we offer ourselves a sacrifice 
for our people. Tho we die for it, we have no complaint to make. In 
our aick chamber, with age upon us, we know not how to speai persuas- 
ively. "7e pray your Excellency to kindly give this your consideration. 
In a word this is what our hearts would say. 

(Signed by) Kim Youn £>ik and Yi Young Chick(Kcrean nobles) 

When the above petition was presented, one nobleman was 
arrested at once and the other, who was too ill, was made a 
prisoner in his own house. 



A16 

HACIAL DI3CHIMIRATI0N If! EOKEA 
_ - . . (Japan Chronicle editorial April 6th, 1919) 

la an' intervxefflr recently reported in the Japanese papers, 
^• + T ?f asata tbe Civil Administrator of Korea, seems to have admitted 
*7t\tt+t* e ^l T r certal "» » °F le °6 justifiable grievances which had 
irritated the Koreans, though he denied that they wore responsible for 
connlotlfi^ ™ rest ' believed were due to sentimental reasons— 

£»w tltr * 5 th ! "S rds self-determination and independence. Without 
being very definite he seems to have suggested that efforts would he 

t ?« ?„ T°r ^grievances of the Koreans so far as was practicable. 
tLi%t °ti e ^° Ped that , this indicates a change in the Japanese policy 
^ 6 Eoreans aad that Yamagata haS been summoned to Tokyo 

thin» £^l Wa £ 3 ^ mea ? s - Much w111 nave tc d0Ee ^eforo there i/any- 
S^S 6 s^ !^ 1 ^ equality between Japanese and Koreans in the Denial 
M^riJl f= r aS K ° re ^ dissatisfaction with the treatment with* Korean 
officials is concerned" , says Mr. Yamagata, -there is something in their 
tffiltit' ^ U V h t ii£f °™*°e existing between the JapaSele and Korean 
ii-ln ^ ^ e d S? ree of elation they have received must be taken 

into due consideration." Quite so; but Mr. Yamagata did not mention 
a „^ r !* er °°^ la 1 lnt ° f the Koreans in this connection that far more 
i£« Zi° n % facillt ieo are afforded the Japanese in the peninsula 
than the Koreans. At the consus taken at the end of December the Ko- 

th^o???S^ 1 ~H a ?? Uatea t0 ^> 648 - 189 > the Japanese excluding 

the officers and the men m the army stationed in the peninsula, 

TiZltt °? ly J 320 ' 938 - As Japanese conscripts are too youSg to have 
bl eL^t^ £ t 01 a Se, and officers generally leave their children to 
™ket l^lV^S?.^' he ^laation of the troops from the calculation 
makes little difference. Despite the great disparity between the 

to £2 l% aa i T^ S 4r« il ^ lQ) ^ ts *^ sidies t^tfrja^nese^choolf 6 
to the extent of fen 339,660 against Yen 602,888 to Korean schools! 

,X^„ S 1° sa ?' though the Korean population axceeds the Japanese pop- 
^ fi TB ! han ^° tlmea ' the Japanese schools are awarded more than 
L ^ S^S 8 ! 1 ??* 1 3utsid y ra isea by general taxation. As a re- 
L I t here were in 1916 so:ae 3 7 ,30? pupils in elementary 
J ^°^ dQ 7 r Ja ^ anea \? ch ° olE J the total number of pupils in 
and advanced Korean public schools v;as leas than 67,000. Hitherto 
Korean education has been largely a matter of private enterprise, a very 
™^X° P Jv lm -f. it . beifls ia the hande of the missions. Instead of ^ 
S^rSfn^" t0 lastru °tion, the Japanese have always looked upon 
these schools with suspicion and dislike, and in the last official re- 
l^Lt l lo mentloned in terms of satisfaction that during tie year Sder - 
Neverthk^, ?^ ar Pr n iVat ? ^ h00ls and 31 missionary schools wire Sosed. 
a™!nst thffi7 nnn PUp1 ^ °n the rQmain ing schools number 53,000 as 
against the 67,000 m the Government schools. We should like to aak 
Mr. Yamagata, whether he considers it fair that locals shoSd be fixed 

J PP °? J ^ e ^ schools while the provision for Korean schools is so 
inadequate To make superior provision for Japanese school s^and then 
with t«™^ ° rean S tllat th F oanaot 1)9 expected to treated an equality 
«insu( aP ?o ?nauS?" USe ^ eduoati011 is deficient, seems like adding 

Tr,ci-^fl i n/ 0t ty ^ such ^thods that unrest in Korea will be suppressed. 

of an endeavor being made to put the Koreans on an equality, 
the wbole tendency is the other way. Japanese are still beiaVfavored 
at the expease of Koreansl For example, at Suwon the magistrate for 
some years was a Korean, who did his work toII, while thfrouSly loyal 
Some ei* a f 3 ?r e a ^orities, showed consideration towards thfioreant. > 
Some eighteen months ago he was replaced by a second-class Japanese 



A16 

clc-rk f rocr i^^o*oX~V>rit^T^*<nrka^ who -rag-agpo-Lated m^gCfat^in his 
""Tla^* . '^ify^" liyon^ Shah at Swaa-was until last year, a IRweaji* 

who T©oedved a salary or Yea 20.00 per-nowt.h ; last year a Japanese was-- 
forced on the people and they have to pay him. Yen 80.00 per month. 
Similar cases could be adduced all over the country. A correspondent 
who has lived in Korea for many years informs us that Japanese of th& lo» 
west class, ignorant and ill-mannered, - as residents know to their oost^— « 
are often appointed as police at a salary of Yen 40.00 por month while 
Korean policemen, who must have a thorough knowledge of Japanese, 
only receive a maximum of Yen 20.00. Post office clerks, if they are 
Korean, begin at Yen 15.00 and go up to Yen o5.00 as a maximum, while 
Japanese who do the same work, and often owing to their imperfect know- 
ledge of Korean, do not do it nearly so well, begin at Yen 30.00 and go 
up to Yen 75.00. At one town not very far from Seoul, there is a large 
agricultural college. Some of the masters are Japanese, some Korean. !$ott„ 
the Korean masters, some of whom are educated in Tokyo, do most of the 
teaching, and yet they get a very much less salary than the Japanese. 
Indeed, it is said that the Japanese coolies responsible for eleaning 
the rooms and lighting the fires in the college, which could of course, 
be as efficiently done by Koreans are paid Yen 40.00 per month, while 
the Korean masters get less than Yen 50.00. The seme system extends 
throughout the country, even to the coolies who do scavenging work, 
Japanese coolies being paid nearly double the sum paid to <"oroans. 
It is said by way of excuse that it costs more for a Japanese to live 
in Korea than for a Korean. This is questioned by those who know the 
facts. Koreans teachers, masters, police etc. have nearly as much in 
the way of expenses to meet for clothes, boots, etc. X as the Japanese, 
Besides^ why should Japanese be employed for unskilled labor when there 
is any amount of Korean labor available? Yet in Korea, one sees every- 
where, even to the akabo at railway stations, preference given to Japanese 
c ;er Koreans: the Japanese akabo for example, gets the cream of the 
luggage work, while the Korean is compelled to wait outside the station 
in the hope of getting a job as the passengers leave. At public offices, 
post offices or railways stations, Japanese always get first attention. 
At most railways stations, for example, a Japanese can always get his 
ticket by going to the office, but a crowd of Koreans have to struggle 
for their tickets at the wickets, and time after time £bm fcbesessfc loss 
their tatains because the leisurely Japanese ticket seller will not open 
the ticket window until about five minutes before the train is due. A 
correspondent who writes to uo on the subject says that this has happened 
three times to his own knowledge within the last six months at a station 
which is near his residence, and probably occurs daily. "When travelling 
by the morning express to Seoul, he says, I could not get a ticket so 
I boarded the train without and paid the conductor, which is possible in 
Korea, but the wretched Koreans are for the most part not allowed on 
tbr station platform without a ticket. I wrote to the authorities to 
complain, and matters have improved somewhat, but whether as a consequen- 
ce of my letter or not I cannot say." 

So long as those methods prevail, it is useless to talk of 
the main efforts of the Japanese being directed to the assimilation 
of Koreans. Korean education, says the unctuous Annual Heport on 
Reforms and Progress in Korea, "aims at giving the coming generations 
such moral training and general knowledge as will enable them to me#t 
the needs of the tfimes, and make of them loyal and good subjects of ' 
Imperial Japan, and at the same time, worthy citizens of the world." 
It is significant that the making of "loyal and good subjects of Imper- 
ii Japan" is put in the first place, while the making of good citizens 
takes a secondary position. It is with the first main object that Japan- 
ese is made the medium of instruction of all the schools, even the mis- 
sionary institutions being forced by law to conform to the regulation 



A17 



which seriously hampers them in their vjork of education, wo repeat 
that it is not by such methods that content will he Drought about in 
Eorea. Were the Koreans loft to themselves, thoy would no doubt willing- 
ly acquire Japanese, because it is only by meaning the language of the- 
overlords that they can bo fitted for the struggle of life in the higher 
ranks of commerce and industry. But when it is forced uson them it 
is a different thing. They are encouraged by this arbitrary action to 
hate the language and from this they pass to hating the people who 
force it upon them. In this matter Japan is pursuing Jt exactly the same 
methods as the Germans pursued towards the Boles, and with a similar 
result . Uksoex Moreover, when the Koreans perceive the Japanese greatly 
stirred up about the question of racial equalityk and observe that at the 
same time in Korea the Japanese pursue the path of racial discrim- 
ination, they naturally regard the Japanese as hypocritical and their 
promises as disagreeing hopelessly with their performances. But the 
Japanese, eager for the declaration of racial equality at the peace 
conference, etefc their eyes to what is being done in the country which 
they have annexed. Hot a single Japanese employed either pen or tongue 
in condemning racial discrimination under Japanese rule. Even the ques- 
tions recently asked in the Diet took the form of blaming the author- 
ities for not keeping order rather than suggesting an inquiry into 
the grievances of che Koreans. The result is to be seen in the present 
situation in Korea, where one of the most submissive and easily governed 
of peoples is protesting day by day, in spite of the most rigorous per- 
secution and the harshest treatment, against the conditions of thoir life. 
It may be hoped that the Japones-e Government will perceive the impolicy 
of the course that is being adopted before it too late. The causes 
of unrest in the various countries are being closely watched by the 
whole world and Japan will suffer seriously in refutation unless 
she sets to work to remove the stigma of racial discrimination within 
her own bprders while she is claiming racial equality abroad. 

THE ST^TUi Ctf LOZi£A. 
I 

The Korean question is attracting a great deal of attention just at 
present and a great many people are asking all sorts of questions 
about it. Fublic memories are so short and private memories have to 
bear the burden of so many details of everyday life that not a few people 
what is the history of the Korean loss of independence, with a view 
to providing a general guide from documentary sources we give in 
chronological order the various treaty clauses that have a bearing 
on the question. 

For centuries the Kings of Eorea had recognized Chinese suzer- 
ainty, and forty years ago one of the familiar sights of Peking in the 
wiufter was the anrula visit of tribute bearers from Korea to the Emperor 
pi China. T^as relation of Korea to China was recognized by all the 
Suropean ?o»:is and by the United States, whenever they had complaints 
to make against hciea they laid th«m through the Chinese Government. 
3ut in 1376 "General Kurods and Count (then lir.) inouya anchored off 
Seoul with a fleet of two men of war and three transports and announced 
tnat they were there to make a treaty or to make war> The Foreans 
chose a treaty and signed on Feb .26th, 1876 . Article I of this treaty 
reads: J 

Chosen being an independent state enjoys the same sovereign 
rights as does Japan. In order to prove the sincerity of the friend- 
ship existing between the tv/o nations, their intercourse shall hence- 
forth be conducted on terms, of equality and courtesy, each avoiding 
the giving of offence by arrogance or the manifestation of suspicion. 

Japan was thu3 the first power to recognize explicitly the sov- 
ereign independence of Korea. The nert recognition came from the United 
States, which on the 22nd May 1882 signed a treaty ratified at Hsnyang 



A18 



0B ^ Ther» M aL^ 9 h' f J"f &rtlCle ° f WMcl1 « ad - s as follow*; - 

of tS £u?ed _t*? e ? 6 ™ ?^ Ce TL tTi&ai ^ * etv?een *• President 

ec fof t>!?, !fo 7- ' of 0513883 a2 - d the citizens and suh- 

Ita3 n nd g ™i^ e V tr !S ty ^?v isQed at IIan ^' on the 25th KoveSer ' 
StfcTaS^whiS reads^ ^ ° f f0ll °^ year ' tlle ^ona of 

After the Sino-Japanese War, the Chinese and Japanese Dleninoten 
tiaries who met at Shmonoseki to discuss teras of pea?e _£ te£ween tte 
£%£« U ? t ? l8 2'. de H t With the nation of the i,ide Dead^ofof ITrll 

of Ko^et 3 ^d^^n 8 definit ^ly the full and complete independence 

151 ^f^inJ 1113 su S6 est ion Li Huag Chang wrote : - 
ness to «c£"__f Ihf^n tTO , ™»th8 ago indicated its willing- 

^?l£e%VSl*%L*F T dUS SucS 8 s?i P Sation BtlP " 
to°S d iS?r e d i^ e tMs e reipe J cr- ^ ^ ^ re * Uire 

late^ h Lt^r,t V ^ X ^ the -, 0hinese Plenipotantary was asked to formu- 
late his wording of the clause, and he did so later as follows:* 

denenrt^^ 1 / 35 ? 11 SS*®* 1 !? definitely the full and complete in- 



April 



T, affoUowsf? 811636 replied the next day, the 10th 



to ^^^^^Tl^4^/t^T^ WW* 

plenipotentaries. 0r_.j-jr.a1_3 presented hy the Chinese 

full and co mp ie?e lldepet^elk u U'^oTn^ea bKWAt ! 
Bfaowea^gT.^^^^ 

Korea, in other worte wenchiS - the^'t ^ ^ sovereignty of 
iance to China. Then in lM? ? roa lta ancient alleg- 

o -uu. men m 1882 we have :he United States recognizing the 



A19 



soveroign independence af Korea, and C-reat Britain following suit ia 1882. 
Japan, harrlng severed Korea from China and that severance having been 
admitted by Great 3ritain and America, is able reculer pour sauter 
to step hack a fvts paces for a running jump, and ia 1395 we have China 
compelled to make a recognition of Korean sovereign independence but 
Japan refusing to make the eome recognition. 

In a few years we have Eussia and Japan recognizing Korea* inde- 
pendence . In the Russo-Japanese Protocol of April 1898 we find Article 
1, reading :- 

The Imperial Governments of Japan and Russia definitively 
recognise the sovereignty and entire independence of Korea, and mutually 
agree to refrain from all direct interence in the internal affairs of 

the couatry. 

The curious introduction of the word "Birect" is suggestive; 
but still /iore suggestive is Article III. of the same Protocol, 
which reads is follows :- 

Ia view of the lar & e development of Japanese commercial and in- 
dustrial ..i: -vriics in Korea, as well as the considerable number of 
Japanese subjects resident ia the country, The Imperial Rucoian Govern- 
ment will not impede xa tee developement of commercial and industrial x& 
relations ootween Japan and Korea. 

This reference to Japanese commercial and industrial enter- 
prises runs like a thread through all subsequent treaty engagements of 
Japan with reference to Korea. The ver next document of importance, 
the first Anglo -Japanese Alliance, has this detail worked out. 
Article I. of the treaty reads :- 

The High Contracting Parties, having mutually recognized the 
Independence of China and Korea, declare themselves to be entirely 
uninfluenced by aggressive tendencit-s, in either country. Having in 
niew, however, their special interests, of which those of c-reat Britain 
relate principally to China, while Japan, in addition to the interests 
she possesses in China, is interested in a peculiar degree, political- 
ly aa well as commercially <anc industrially, in Korea, the High Con- 
tracting Parties recognize that it will be admissible for either of 
them to take such measures as u-ay be indispensable in order to safe- 
guard these interests if threatened either by the aggressive action 
of any other power or by disturDances in china or irorea, and necessiatim 
the intervention by either of the High contracting parties for 
the protection of the lives and property of its subjects. 

Cruiously enough the opening words of the Article are devoid of 
foundation in fact. Great Britain and Japan had not previously "mutu- 
ally recognised" the independence of China and Koreu though the preamble 
of the treaty itself admits that the two Powers are interested in main- 
taming that independence. By the way, what dirvel! "it will be admissi- 
ble 1 ' to do what is "indispensable" if "necessary"! it is necessar<- that 
a man ohould protect himself from the weather, therefore it is indispensa- 
ble that he should wear trousers; and therefore it will be admissible firr 
him to wear braces I 

The next reference to the subject occurs in the Janau-norean 
Protocol of 23rd Feb. 1904. This was at the very opening of the Russo- 
Japanese war, when it was necessary to impreas upon the world that Japan 
was fighting an entirely altruistic battle for the bebefit of Korea, 
with no after thoughts as to hor own advantage. Article ill. of that Pro- 
tocol reads :- 

The Imperial Government of Japan definitively guarantees the 
independence and territorial integrity of the Korean Empire. 

When the war was over, however, there was no need either to recog- 
nize or guarantee, so that we have in the Treaty of Portsmouth, which was 
on the 5th September 1905, Article II. reading as follows- 



A20 



The Imperial Bussian Government, acknowledging that Japan pos- 
sesses in Eorea, paramount political, military and economic inter- 
ests, engages neither to obstruct nor to interfere with the meas- 
ures of guidance, protection and control which the Imperial Govern- 
ment of Japan may find it necessary to take in Korea. 

This is the first time that Japan is admitted to have paramount 
interests of any kind in Koreak tut the second admission comes very 
close on the heels of the first, for the second Anglo-Japanese Alliance 
dated the 27th September 1905, makes no reference whatever to the inde- 
depecdence of Korea hut has for Article III. the following: wnich has 
striking similarities of phraseology with the article quoted f r °m tne 
Portsmouth Treaty 

Japan poaeessing paramount political, military and economic 
interest in Korea, Great Britain recognizes the right of Japan to 
take such measures for guidance, control and protection m Korea as sne 
may deem necessary to saf -guard and advance those interests, provided 
always that such measures are not contrary to the principle of equal 
opportunities for the commerce and industry of all nations. 

In the series of excerpts wfcich we have Just set forth, we have 
the orxth and development of the principle of special interests, in 
our next article we shall see this principle over-ride every other. 

III. 

In the two preceding articles we have seen that there were two 
phases in the modern history of Korea's relations with the outside 
world; first, the stage in which Korea was exalted to independence of 
China; and the second stage in which Japan eas seduously obtaining from 
various Powers the recognition of the fact that she had paramount 
interests in Korea. In the third period, which only lasted five yeafs, 
Japan set herself to get from Korea herself an admission that Korea's 
best interests would be best looked after by Japan, and to turn that ad- 
mission into an open door through which complete Japanese domination 
culminating in annexation, might enter. There were two problems to be 
solved first, to remove as far asja. possible all relations between Korea 
and other Powers; second to deprive Korea herself of every vestige of real 
power over herself. The story of the solution of these two problems is t 
told in public documents. There are really two stories, and to disentangle 
them the documents need to be regarded as to series, and must be set forth 
not in one chronological sequence but two. 

Let us follow first the processes by which Eorea was deprived of all 
power over herself, that is to say, by which everything in the way of a 
really Korean domestic administration was abolished. The first document 1 
ini this series is the Japan -Korean Protocol of the 23rd February 1904, 
which open with Article I., reading as follows :- 

For the purpose of maintaining a permanent and solid friendship 
between Japan and Koroa and firmly establishing peace in the Par East, 
the Imperial Governinent of Korea shall place full confidence in the 
Imperial Government of Japan and adopt the advice of the latter in 
regard to improvement in administration. 

The second document in the series is the Japan-Iiorean Treaty of 
the 22nd August 1904, the following being in this connection the 
significant articles:- 



A21 

Art. I. The Korean Financial Department to engaga_,a Japanese as 
-superintendent of Korean financ-ee in order tc carry out fiscal re-forms. 

Art. 3. Soimd currency system to be esrtablxshod by ab oli -s hln g the pre-~-- .. 
sent mint and withdrawing oopper coins no in circulation. 

Art ,4. Currency union to do-k established between Japan and Korea 
and Japanese money to accepted as legal- tender by Koreans. 

Art. 10. Ehe Korean army at present 20,000 to be reduced to 1,000 
and all the garrisons in the provinces to be disbanded, one at Seoul 
alone being kept. 

Art .11. Military arms to be made common between Japan and. Korea, 
with the object of adjusting the existing military system in the latter 
country. 

Two years later on the 24th July 1907, we have another Japan- 
Korean Treaty, which absolutely deprives Korea of any voice in its 
own administration. The important articles in this covenant v.-ith refer- 
ence to Korean authority over Korean matters are as follows: 

Art.l. The governemtnt of Korea shall follow the guidance of the 
(Japanese) Resident General In effecting administrative reforms. 

Art. 2. All the laws to be enacted and all the important administration 
measures to be undertaken by the Korean Government shall previously 
receive the consent and approval of the Resident General. 

Art. 4. The appointment and dismissal of high officials of Korea, 
shall be at the pleasure of the Resident General. 

Art. 5. The Government of Korea shall appoint to the Government 
offices of Korea any Japanese the Resident General may recommend. 

| It is obvious that this practically means the extinction of any 
Korean authority in Korea. 

We noT/ turn to the steps by which Japan obliterated all links 
between Korea and other Powers. We begin with the Japan-Korean Pro- 
tocol of the 22nd August 1904, which provided :- 

ani Art. 8. Korea to recall her ministers stationed 'abroad when she 
decides to place her foreign affairs and the protection of her sub- 
jects staying abroad in charge of Japan. 

Art. 9. The Foreign Ministers to Korea to be withdrawn from Seoul, 
and the Foreign Consuls alene to remain on duty with the withdrawal 
of Korean Ministers and Consuls from Foreign countries. 

The full development of this removal of the Korean Foreign Office 
to Tokyo is seen in the Japan-Korean Treaty of 17th November 1905, 
which stipulates :- 

Art.l. The Japanese Government through the Foreign Office in Tokyo, 
will henceforth take control and direct the foreign relations and 
affairs of Korea, and Japanese diplomatic representatives and consuls stx 
will protect the subjects and interests of Korea abroad. 

Art. 2. The Japanese Government will take upon itself the duty of car- 
rying out existing treaties between Korea and foreign countries, and 
the Korean Government binds itself not to negotiate any treaty or 
agreement of a diplomatic nature without the intermediary of the 
Japanese Government . 

Thus we see the two main lines along which the Japanese Government 
moved for the suppression of Korean nationality. Incidentally we 
may note that every step seemed to be carefully prepared. Thus the fo- 
llowing passages indicate that for gjuite a long time before the annexa- 
tion the Japanese Government had been preparing the dispose of the Imperial 
House : - 

A distinet line of demarcation to be drawn between the Court and the *a 



A22 

"-ti^HKrr&ramaiit . - Japan-Korean (Treaty 22nd August 1904." 

The Japanese Gcrrerauien*. ^u^u-airtees to xnadjttai n the security and 
respect the dignity- of the Imperial Eor.se. Japan-Korean Treaty, 
17tn November 1905. 

His Majesty the Emperor of Japan, vrill accord to their Majesties, 
the Emperor and the Ex-Emperor c^r 1 Pis Imperial Highness, the Crown 
Prince of Korea and their corsci-s and heirs titles, dignity and honor 
as are appropriate to their sevens! ranks, and sufficient annual grants 
will be made for the maintenance of such titles, dignity and honor. 
Treaty of Annexation 29th August 1910. 

We have set forth fully the steps by which Korea was deprived of 
her independence, and in a' closing article we shall inquire how far tho 
other interested Powers expressed acquiescence in Japan's action. 

TREATIES KISH KOREA. 
(China Press for ahout March 19th.) 

I, TREATY S ITH JAPAN. 

The treaty of Feb. 26th, 1376 referred to in the Korean Declaration 
of Independence says, Art. I., 

Korea "being an independent state enjoys the same soverign rights 
as does Japan 

All their intercourse shall henceforward be carried on in terms of 
equality and courtesy. 

II. nnSSIATI-JAPAWK:!: PB0T0C0L, April 1898. 

Art .1 .The Imperial Governments of Japan and Russia definitively re- 
cognize the sovereignty and entire independence of Korea. 
Ij I ,AHGL0-JAPANE£E ALLIANCE, Jan .1902 

.£.••>; Art. 1. The High Contracting Parties, having mutually recognized the 
independence of China and Korea, declare themselves to be entirely un- 
irflueuced by any aggressive tendencies in either country. 
IV . JAP AH -KOREAN PROTOCIOL.Fab . 23,1904. 

Art. 1. The Imperial Government of Korea shall place full confidence in 
the Imperial Government of Japan. 

Art. 3. The Imperial Government of Japan definitively guarantee the in- 
^opandence and territorial integrity of the Korean Empire. 

The great war'has not furnished any mere glaring "scraps of paper." 
China may well take care today, and call a halt to her treaty making 
with this nation which has so little truth or honor. 

Mr. P.AiMcITenzie.in hi3 "Tragedy of Korea", Chap. 11 says, "as the 
summer of 1905 drew to a close, it became more clear that the Japanese 
Government, despite its many promises to the contrary, intended to com- 
letely destroy the independence of Korea. The Emperor had thought 
that because independence was provided for in treaty after treaty with 
the Great Powers, therefore ho v?as safe. 

He had to learn, like Jelgiua, that in the face of a German -liko 
militarism, treaties are only ' ; saraps of Paper." 

He resisted the demands of Japan, he refused to sign, Ho said to 
Marquis Ito: "To assent to your proposal would mean the ruin of my coun- 
try and I will therefore sooner die than agree to them." After a con- 
ference of five hours, the Japanese could accomplish nothing. Then came 
the power of brutal force. On the evening of Nov. 17th, 1905, Japanese 
6oldiers with fixed bayonets, surrounded the apartment of the Emperor. 
His Cabinet ministers, remembering the Japanese murder of the Queen in 
1895, yielded although the Emperor still refused. It is a terrible story. 
Sfill the nations hear the cry of this people today? And right this great 
wrong? 



KOREAN INDEPENDENCE OUTBREAK 
BEGINNING- 
MARCH 1st., 1919. 

PART III. 

CONFERENCES BETWEEN OFFICIALS AND 
FOREIGNERS. 



Bl 

Beport of a Conference with iir, Usami. 
Head of the Department of Domestic Affairs of Choeon. 
While in Seoul 3 on the 9th of March, I waa invited "by the Bev. F.H. 
Smith to attend a meeting at his house. The meeting was held at the re- 
quest of Mr. Uaami, He wanted to meet some of the missionaries and gat 
their view point of the present disturbed condition of affairs and learn 
through them something as to what the Koreans were doing and thinking at 
the present time. 

There were present the following missionaries: Mr .P.H.Smith, Dr.A.M. 
Sharrocks, i^r. Hugh filler, Dr.Hardy, Dr.W.A.Noble, Dr. J. S. Sale, Dr.o.B. 
Avison and ilr.C.F.Bwraheisel. 

Mr .Uaami was accompanied by Mr. Uyeda of the Government force. Mr. 
Smith acted as interpreter. The first point "brought out was that the 
missionaries did not have previous knowledge of this movement for indepen- 
dence and not having such knowledge could not, therefore, have incited it 
as many Japanese have claimed that they did. We each assured Mr. Usaai 
that while' we had heard rumors that something was going to happen at the 
time of the Memorial Service, we did not know what it wa3 as the Koreans 
had not taken us into their confidence at all, 

Mr. Usami heard our statements and then assured us that he believed 
that we were speaking the truth and that the missionaries did not have 
previous knowledge of the movement and therefore did not incite it, and 
that he would do what he could to counteract the report against the mis- 
sionaries that were being circulated. 

He said that to seek to change established law i3 a serious matter 
and many will take part in it who will only stir up trouhle. The Koreans 
judge not "by reason hut hy feelings and rumors. As to the origin of 
this trouhle he thought that it was due to several things: 

1. Points in the administration of the government to which they objected. 

2. Influence of Korean students studying abroad who have been stir- 
rod up over Pres.Wilson's principle of self-determination. They hade 
heard of the Szecho-Slovake and the roles getting their liberty and they 
have been influenced to make a try for the liberty of this country. 

3. One Korean met Pres. Wilson and asked him if the case of Korea 
would not be considered at the Peace Conference .Ires, Wilson replied that 
as things were quiet in Korea, nothing about this country would be consid- 
ered at the Conference ."But suppose" said the Korean, "that things are not 
quiet in Korea, and that the Koreans should start a rebellion, what would 
the Conference do then?" "In that case," said the Fresedent, "the ca3e of 
Korea might get a hearing at the Conference." This word having come out 
here it has stirred up the Koreans. 

4. It has been rumored abroad that a document had been presented by 
the government to the late Emperor asking him to sign it, to the effect 
that the Koreans were well satisfied with Japanese rule and that every- 
thing was quiet and serene and that the Emperor had refuted to sign it 
but had been so disturbed by it that his death had been hastened, Mr. 
Uaami said that there was no truth whatever in this report and that no 
such document had be'en presented for the signature of the Emperor. Had 
such a signature been desired it would have been presented not to the old 
king but to the young one as was done at the time of the annexation. 

5. The Koreans at Pyeng Yang had heard that independence had been 
granted them and that now all they had to do was to take possession of it. 

As for the Chundokyo, it had never been recognized as a religion but 
only as a political organization on which the government had kept a close 
watch^ Seme Christian preachers had unitod with them in the movement and 



5 2 

had been deceived by the Chondokye.The Christians had been lwrtnwrte*^to- v 
keep quiet and use no violence in the movement but the-Cbundokyo had not 
been so inatruoted. 

The Government had great anxiety over the turn affairs had taken and 
felt that missionaries had ideas on the subjeot as they were in oloso fe- 
latlon to the people and so he.lir.Udatni.had sought this interview that ha 
might learn what the missionaries thought on the matter and he hoped that 
we would speak frankly. He felt that from the viewpoint of humanity, nation 
al indopendenoe would be a good thing, but practically it would bo only for 
the harm of the people. Independence would be followed by variouB politi- 
cal parties with rival ambitions and it would be only a short time till 
the country would be in a state of anarchy suoh as now exists in Germany 
aad Russia, So he felt that the real welfare and happiness of the Koreans 
do not lis along that lino. 

The missionaries spoke along the following linos: 

Dr. Shar rocks: 

In the preliminary mooting of the Christians and the Chondokyo.the 
Christians stood for the British as opposed to the German method of rule* 
The Chondokyo wanted complete independence. The Christians did not want to 
strike for complete independence but at last it was agreed that the Chris- 
tians would go in for full independence if the Chondkyo on their part 
would agree to no violence but peaceful methods. 

Br. Gal q: ■ 

The Koreans are living under a state of mental terror. They have 
grown more and more apart from the Japanese ae the years have gone by. 
Have great foajc of the polios. They are a different race and should bo al- 
lowed to develop along their own racial lines with an individuality of 
theif"r own. 

Br.Hoble: 

If the Government had outlined some program giving the Koreans hope 
they would have been better satisfied. In the absenoe of such program they 
had lost all hope and now feel that their only hope in in separation from 
the Japanese Government. 

Mr.Usarai said that students returning from Japan and other plaoee 
have said the same things and that the Government plans such things and 
does not want to discriminate against the Koreans. 

Mr. Hugh Miller: 

Mr. Miller spoke along the line of the theory of taxation without re- 
presentation. 

Br. Hardy: 

The Koreans want a chance te express their own manhood. The present 
movement is a natural outgrowth of the education that has been given by 
both missionaries and tho Government. They have arrived at a state of self- 
consciousness and now want an opportunity to work out their destinies along 
their own racial lines. 
Br.Avlson*. 

Scotland and England add strength to each other .Baoh working along 
its own line adds strength to the other. So should Korea and Japan. At pea- 
sant Korea is a weakness to Japan and not a strength. 

He had urged the Koreans to prepare a manly statement of what they 
wanted and go to the Government with it. The Koreans did so and brought 
him suoh a list of their domandy.They want their own history respooted and 
their own language preserved. 3eing compelled to take all their education 
through the medium of the Japanese language is distasteful to them. They 
are willing to study Japanese Dut rosont being forced to get thoir eduoa 
tion through that medium. They want a beginning of self-government. 

Br.Bornheisel: 

Mr.Bornheisel spoke first of the restlessness of the student class. 
They feel that there is no hope for them in this country and therefore 
they are anxious to get out of the country as fast as they oan. There are 



a 3 

reaeons for it. There 1b no freedom of speech and thoy know not what momen 
raent thoy will bo arrested ard *»hrown into prison. 

ffo had a Literary Society in the Pycng Yang Collage but the Govern- 
ment forbade it and It had to be oloeed* 

?.'e had an annual Oratorical Exhibition but that was forbidden* The 
last time it was held the participants wore arrested and thrown into jail 
and refused permission to attend any more whatever* Their orations wore 
innocent. But the polios present gave false reports to the polioe office 
and would not accept the truth of the oase* Many such inoidents hate serv- 
ed to discourage the student elass and caused them to oppose the administra 
tion of the Government. 

The Church people also are greatly dissatisfied with the oppressive 
restrictions placed upon them* An incident in point is the following* At 
the reeont raeoting of the Winter 3iblo Class, at the time of the early mar 
morning prayer meeting, some of the men were weeping over the state of fcfe 
thoir own souls and the condition of the Church, and were praying lor a 
revival, a w poo houng".The spies present reported this to the polioe and th 
the next morning these men were arrested and accused of praying for a re- 
vival of political power or national restoration or independence. All wore 
release 1 but one and he was kept In prison for several weeks and then ac- 
tually brought to trial. The thousand and more men at the class felt that 
he was unjustly dealt with and went home to tell tens of thousands cf peo 
pie of It and thus many people have rancor in their hearts against the 
Government. The Christiana feci that they cannot even pray for a revival 
without being subjected to arrest. 

The people at large have muoh bitter feeling in their hearts because 
of the ex-appropriation of lends by the Government. The old crown lands 
which were use I for oenturies oy the Koreans were taken away from them in 
many oases and given to the incoming Japanese settlers .So many of these 
people have boon immigrating to Kando and all going with bitter feelings 
in their hearts against the Government. 

Tho above is an outline of what was said at the oonforonoo which last 
ed for three hours. irtr.Usami expressed himself as very grateful for the 
conference and we did the same. Be said that if at any time we had any sug 
geetions to make to him he would be very glad to reoeive them. He was 
aekod.if the Koreans should desire to present to the Government a list of 
thoir desiree f whether or not the Government would wolsome them and Mr. 
Usarai said the Government would welcome them. 

We all felt that the conference might be of considerable significance 
and were all glad that we hel the privilege of attending it. 



B 4. 

The I>oings of the Pyongyang Pressmen. 



With Special Roferoneo to' t e Events of tho Prosont Time. 

A few dav8 ago tho Pfrengyang' ?roaamen moT again to oonsider tho pre- 
sent diBturbanoes. In this mooting it was said that the missionaries of the 
christian Ghuroh mere about t> moot and consider these disturbances and so 
t}e prssmen deoided to send tho following lettor to thorn:-" Are you in pesoe? 
The idea of independence is very great but wo hope the Koreans will realise 
ihe uselcasness of it and go in tho right road. If the missionaries would help 
tie iioroans to do th$ right thing it would bo greatly appreciated. Although 
'.o have not seen for ourselves »yot the word is oommon around that tho mis- 
sionaries have a part in these disturbances .Although wo do not think these re- 
ports are tru,yet it would be well if the missionaries and pressmen could h 
have a meeting and talk over what part if any has been taken by the mission- 
aries. In this way the v-rong ideas between the Japanese and Koreans oan bo 
removed. We would appreoiate it if tho time and plaoo oould be aot for thia 
mooting.* 

(Signed) The Pressmen. of Pyongyang. The 6th. day. 

(This oommunication was sent to Dr.Moffett.Hr.Boiner.Dr.iloore and 
Dr.Baird.) 

(Seoul Press, April 6,1919.) 

JAPANESE CHRI3XIAH3 ASS aiS3I0HAaiC3 III PX23G¥AHG. 

On Thursday last, reports a Pyeng Yang message, nine delegates of Chris 
tian Japanese in that oity oalled on representative missionaries and advised 
thorn to diBeuade their flocks from taking part in the agitation by painting 
out to them the futility of tho movement. 

What answer the missionaries, made is not yet reported* 



> 



KOREAN INDEPENDENCE OUTBREAK 



BEGINNING 
MARCH 1st . , 1919 . 

PART IV. 

SECOND STAGE OP THE MOVEMENT. 
MARCH 6-31. 



C.I. 

mcirnSTS-OCCUE-tldU iuu^i. £.-o*'''bef;>re. 
OLD mAH BRUTALLY KICKED- (Reported by Br.O.) 
Mr.D. and I looked up an old man living noar tdr.C's house, who was re- 
ported to be badly injured because of mistreatment in connection with the 
demonstration. We found him to be .iiEZBg aged 65. Ho was a Chris- 
tian but had been on the Seminary Hill when the demonstration took alace 
on luoeday afternoon the 4th. Though old, he had entered into the spirit of 
the affair and shouted mansoi. Police and soldiers came his wa» out he did 
not move. They seized him, boat him and ticked him until he fell from exhaust 
Ion. Then they led him away to the fire house by the Best Gate where he was 
further mistreated. By this time he could no longer stand on his left leg, 
this having Dcon terribly wrenahed.He was found to be in such bad condition 
that the police did not care to have the bother of him so he was placed in 
a ricksha and ser.t home. When they were beating him he cried out , "VThy do 
you beat me?""Wh&t law permits this?Here I am"opening his breast, "Kill me." 
Ho 3ays ho is going to believe now. 

SCHOOL GIRLS TIED TO POST BY HAIR. 
The medical force at the Mission Hospital report the following: On 
Tuesday several fiendish firemen armed with long fire hooks, were seen to 
enter a Korean house near the Hospital. There they found two school girls 
whom they dragged out of the building by thoir hair, beat them and led them 
aeii away until they oame to a large pole. There they tied the two girls up 
by their own hair and then beat them and loft th.-.n until police came to 
oonduot them to the police station. 

10OU3DE3 DEUIED HOSPITAL Ti.EATJSUT BY MILITARY. 
It is commonly reported in town today that the military authorities 
have denied the privilege of bringing the wounded to the hospital for treat 
ment.but have turned those back who were found to bo entering the city with 
their wounded friends.lt is evident that the military are anxious to keep 
as muoh of their brutality concealed as possible. 

HM SHOT AND IflJUBED SESii AT HOSPITAL. 

Before the above had. been enforced a group of wounded men was brought 
to the tlission Hospital for treatment .We visited and interviewed a number 
of these men today. There were II such men and one young boy in the hospital 
from gun shot wounds. Of these one had been shot noar the police station in 
Pyeng iang.the boy at Kangsyo.and the other men at Morupsil. While in the 
city of Pyeng Yang, I saw the soldiers use blank cartridges when shooting at 
the people near the Theological Seminary Building, In the country it is re- 
ported that no blanks were used, but that when the soldiers and gendarmes 
shot they shot to kill. 

The II men brought from the country wore injured by the gendarmes. In 
neither of the two places mentioned did the people attach or attempt to do 
any violence until the gendarmes deliberately shot into them. At Kangsyo a 
Memorial Service for the deceased Emperor had been held after which the 
Independence meeting was held. The gendarmes appeared as soon as the shout- 
ing began and began to fire. The boy now in the hospital v;as shot in the 
baok while running away, the bullet having gone through him and come out in 
the front .One other men was killed instantly by a bullet in the head. Three 
others were arrested. Ho property was damaged by the crowd nor was there any 
intention manifested of doing such damage. 

Morupsil. The worst shooting affair yet reported thus far took place 
here. An immense crowd had gathered here on Monday for the purpose of holding 
an Independence meeting. The gendarmes appeared, loet their heads completely 
and without a word began firing into the crowd. There were four gendarmes, 
throe of them Koreans and one a Japanese. The people immediately set upon 
them and when they saw what was being done and killed the three iloreans. 



after about^L? " Sr ° kiUsi ^^tlj.ii^ died If wounds shortly 
tate JSoS^Xi^S?! 4 £9 - Sh0t t6l0W 10198 breaki »« a « *»«.B.d to ampu 



Kim Hymn Ho .aged 19. 
Zias Heung Hyo.aged 60. 
Syc Yung Syok.aged 23 



yaia a et°«„?» a i! d thr ° U * h 3pine loain « °»* -rtobra.Paral- 

5 1 0&!SSd 4 SsT n,OtUrel •*»■"•*•'■»* on. 
Lee Chi Paik.aged 29. 
Cha Pyung 2yoo,aged 36. 
nn ^Jl *V aid that after on e of tHe men had been operated on and was 

lou cannot oure me. If I am to recover.God only can heal me-lfluweiT-aaaoi." 
_ _ BRAE? EMORED BY. PISHdEH. 

atatio* «4S g f5 M ?i: Jl8e4 50 * aS in the orowd Bhich gathered near the poli.e 
ins was tO r J»?t the , stoaG8 °* Saturdaf lasr.Ihis stone thro" 
o«»r!n f?o£^ \Sf th * Wr «"'" having turned the fire hose on the 
and thrS.E£ ^ J 6 . P llee indignant orowd then took stonoa 

llL «r! hf Jo 6 ™ 6 811 the Bremen came out with their 

li K H h003t8 and dr0Te the orow * a*ay and in the affair he waa 1*tv1h ir, 
the head and the hook run olear into the brain. Hi^oonStioa %H 8 £l^5 • 

oo^ertd!) 78 3 ° B ha4 iB - H ° 18 8 ^"ever. (Later .ThL mln rt- 

SCHOOL HJSPBCJOR CALLS FOR LOKG IBTEBViar. 
i»t fi rJ?»» **, "ernoon Mr.Yamada .Government School Inspector, called for an 
interview to ascertain the views of the foreignors.We spoke of a Irllt ™ m 
questions, including the probable causes of thf present uprfatL? * ™* 

Among his questions were the following • uprising. 

I.Causos of the uprising. 

e.What the Koreans really want. 

S.What can be done to meet the oresent situation. 

4.H0W about secularization of education? 

6-P.egarding the doing away of private schools altogether? 

fi.Hogarding the part of the Church in the uprising? 

7. Views of foreigners. 6 

FORCED SIGNATURES. SUiE " B¥ °* iW ™ ^ 

nor* t^ n ^ ed ^ e3day a " eraoon at 1-P-M.the prefect in the city summoned 
SEfJSSL^ J?T?; °^ * uslness and official Koreans to his offle. la the 

«« SuiUang.Only 24 men attended of whom seven were Christians. 
»er next Ider m^SSiS 08 " 1 ? 18 in tie & °^rnme n t.The Prefect anl t^ off i- 
llliZl «^ hia.oesides a Korean newspaper reporter and a Korean inter- 

Preaent.Ihe meeting lasted from I to 4;30 P.M.Ihe purpose of the 
meeting was expressed by the Prefect :ho said that since «eat aS?w» 

%?JZ£T "J"** ln the was necessary t^t S Iu who desirtd 

to restore order and who were opposed to such disturtanoes should unite 



C.3. 

in petitioning for quiet .Henoo ho asked that all the non sign a paper stat- 
ing the following points :- 

(-a)That the Independence Proclamation had boon prepared by ignorant 
low-down Koreans and that it did not express the sentiment of the people 
as a whole • 

(b)That if Koroa ie not joined to Japan.it cannot get alojig suooss- 

fully. 

(o)That if the disturbances continue and the soldiers and police are 
further annoyed, the people must suffer and cannot endure it. 

(d)Thst the disturbance will affect business very unfavorably and 
that it is hoped that peace and order can oe restored and maintained. 

Svery man refused to sign .whereupon the Prefect said, "Since you re- 
fuse to sign, there can bo no other reason than that you approve of the Inde- 
pendence Proclamation. "One man replied: "What ground is there for such a s 
statoment?Our refusal to sign cannot be charged to that aocount. "Another 
man replied"Perhaps we may have to die for refusing to sign .but oven so we 
cannot." 

On the following tay the Japanese officers of the iiuainess Men s Assn. 
(probably Chamber of Commerce) invited 3even or eight of the Korean members 
in for a special conference. They did not all respond but four men did. One 
was a Christian and three were non-Christians. The meeting was held at the 
Business lien's Ass'n rooms on Thursday, lfetrch 6th from I-4P.lt. Those present 
wero:- 

The President and Vice President. 

Five or six Japanese newspaper reporters. 

Two Japanese interpreters. 

Four Korean business men. 

The same propositions were made to these men ae by the Prefect on the 
previous day, but specially from the business man's point of view. But again 
they all refused. Every argument was used to influence them but without a- 
vail. 

3. It is reported that men are travelling now through the country sel- 
ling a two-volume book on the subject of the Government in Chosen. The books 
are said to sell for "Sen 3.00 ordinarily but they are now offered for 30 
sen. Sales are almost forcible, and every one who buys must sign a statement 
which says that the Government of Korea (a)suits the needs of the people, 
(b)the people like it, and (c)there is no nesd for a change. A oopy of this 
book has not yet been secured. 

jSeSIBUCTIQH 0? CHURCH BUILDIHGS AND FOTtHISEISGS. 
The following Church buildings and furnishings have been reported 
wrecked to date: 

Chinnampo Methidist and Presbyterian Churohes(2). 

Kyomipo Presbyterian Church. 

Pansyok " " 

Sichon " " 

iJamsanmoru " " 

Tateiryung ■ " 

At Pansyok the haystacks of certain Christians were burned by the sol 
diers.Also the clothe* of one of the Christian women. Bibles were taken from 
the Church along with all the reoords and all deliberately burnod and de- 
stroyed. 

BIBLES I0HH AHD STAMPED UPON BY S0LDIEK3. 
for days past people in the city found carrying Bibles have been stop 
ped and the bibles taken from thorn and torn up by the soldiers and police 
on the spot. At Tai-pyung-dong Pastor Kim Kichai's books were all taken and 
destroyed. 



C4 

pastors, church officers ahd oaaisiua teachers sought 

ipparently an order has gone out to seize every pastor, church 
officer and Cnristian school teacher. In many places already, these 
men have been taken. The rest are fleeing for safety. The soldiers 
and gendarmes are looking for then. If they cannot finfl then by day 
they <*o again at night. If the men are not at home, they demand or 
the woman to tell where they are. If the women cannot tell or re- 
fuse to tell, the soldiers drag them by the hair and (or) beat them. 

CHRIoTUaib MOST 3E iiTERklHATED . 

The Japanese in the city are freely saying that at least half 
the Christians must he got rid of before there can be any peace for 
the Japanese. A reign of terro has been instituted. All church and 
school officers are being arrested. People are being asked whethe r 
they are Christians. Those who say that they are not are generally 
not molested. Those who admit thajs they are Christians are beaten 
and arrested. . . OQ 

1. At Mirim the elders were arrested and after receiving ^ 
lashes were released. There was no special reason for this except 
that they were Christians. _ 

2. At Choongwha the deacons were similarly Arrested ana arxei re- 
ceiving 15 lashes each were released. There was no special reason. 

3 At the same place certain Christian women vjere dragged out 
by their hair and forced to pay a fine of Yen Five. There was no 
special reason. ... , 

4. At the same place Deacon No after being beaten was compelled 
to sign three papers which said respectively :- 

(a) That he would, not shout mansei again. 

(b) That he possessed property. 

(c) That he would hereafter obey the laws. 
He had done nothing special. 

ONE HUNDRED PRISONERS IB OF &ROUP . 

On Saturday the 3th. a lot of prisoners in two divisions 
passed on the large road through the kiosion compound enroute to 
the police station. The first consisted of 12 men, the second of 
88 men all with their hands securely tied and the whole tied togeth- 
er. Behind this procession came an ox cart on which two others 
were brought in bound down to the carts, mor<. dead apparently than 
alive . These men came from Syungchun, a strong Chuntokyo center 
about 140 li from here. 

JAPANESE HOIuiTA i?BLL0 ,; ' SOLDIERS. 

It is reported in the country that the Japanese nokata (low- 
down coolies) are following the soldiers and are spreading terror 
among the Christian women. Their plan is said to be to ravish the 
Christian wMion. The report has not been verified. 

13-15 YEAR OLD GIRLS ARRISTLi). 

The indiscriminate character of the arrests made is evidenced 
by the arrests of girls from 13 to 15 years of age. These school 
girls did no violence but simply ran on the streets like a lot of 
little butterflies, uow here, now there singin^, waving little Korean 
flags and taunting the soldiers. They were arrested accordingly 
just as any other offenders, soma beaten, some scolded and xothere haled 
to jail. 



C5,«,7. 



Today I went to Chungwha to see how the church there wag 
_jjet-Hjjg~slong after the recent political disturbance, ( the pastor and six 
officers of the church are in jail), I left Pyeng Yang on the early morning 
trein 7:00 A.j£. At the station oefore I boarded the train, a policeman de- 
manded to see my pass port , and rcccrded my name and ago.Eo asked me where I 
was going and v.'hen I was coming back, on what train. I told him I would be 
beck cn the II o'clock train. When I returned from Chungwha. that same morn- 
ing, t^re police at the gate did not .ask for ay passport when I turned in my 
ticket at the station. 

Jrom the station I. wont to the Seventh Church on my way hone. The help 
er of the church, Kim Ousuk, lives in the little Korean house in front of the 
church building. He has some white leghorn chickena.and I wanted to ask him 
afout getting a setting of eggra.When I called at his house, he was out in 
the yard. He asked me to oome in the house, or else go into the church if we 
wanted to talk quietly. I said I had nothing to say to him privately , but 
1 hat we could talk out there in the yard. I askerl him how many eggs he had 
cn hand. He said he had only four or five but)! th-.t in a few days he v;oul3< 
have enough to set a hen with. During our conversation about the eggs, Kim, 
Korean-like .used the fingers on his hand to count with, and perhaps I too, 
made some motion with'my hands. I did not stay long, but after inquiring abo* 
the eggs, and asking him to save enough for me a setting, I came right on 
home . 

That night at one o ' clock, Helper Kim was suddenly awakened by the 
call of e man trying to get in his front gate .He opened tho gate and the 
man came in to his house. He was a Korean dressed in citizen's clothes. He 
asked him If a foreigner had been to his house that day. Kim said "lies" and 
told him my name. The oaller asked how old this foreigner was. Kim did not 
know exactly. The caller helped him out by asking if he thought I was 34- 
whioh is my age-and Kim told him he thought I was about that old. Then the 
caller suddenly faced Kim with, "How you tell me just what you and that for 
signer talked about .You made an agreement to do something four days from 
now t and a want to know just what that agreement was. "Kits assured the detao 
tire that we hai talked about hen eggs only, but the man was very suspicious 
and keat questioning him as to what all those hand motions meant during our 



o.e. 

short conversation together .He got no satisfaction out of Kim , onlyogs , eggs , 
eggs, ana finally he picked up his hat in aisgust and started out. Before he 
.vont out he admitted to Kim that ho had not gathered much valuable informa- 
tion about this foreigner whom he had shadowed from ohe railway station 
oack to the mission compound. He also told Kim he was sorry ho had to inter- 
rupt his sleep in the middle of the night, but he was only a slave Korean 
himself and had to do what his boss told him to do. 

And now I suooose the report will come out in some issue of the Japan 
ese press that all these missionaries havs to do is to raise chickens. 

More -Events Happening Caring March. (March 31,1919). 
One method of torture being used on some of the school boys now in 
the possession of the police .notably upon the son of Kil iSoksa, involved tho 
tying of the arms together above the elbows and drawing them back antil tha 
elbows finally touched. Then some kind of manacle was substituted for tho 
cords and the arms thus held firm. Then the prisoners were laid upon a whip- 
ping platform and unmercifully beaten. After the beating the manacles were 
removed, but the act of thus drawing the arms back must have patactieally dis 
located the shoulders for they remained as theiwere until the police struck 
the shoulders soundly in front thus bringing the bones again into their 
eookets. After this cold water was applied to the shoulders. 

Buring the mat month the following facts have been ascertained and 
these incidents have been reasonably verified in all cases ana" accurately 
so in most cases. 

I. In tho Soonsn district, near Chajak.tho uprising began as in <» 
other eesesz places, with meetings and shouting of Mansei.The soldiers ap- 
peared and attempted to disperse the crowds. She commanding officer finally 
sent out word asking that representatives from all the near-by districts 
should assemble at a certain place to counsel with him regarding the whole 
affair. These men came. The oommaiading officer then asked all who were Christ 
ians to 3tand.Tlne rest were told they might go. The Christians were arrested 
This is a case in which a dear distinction was made between Christians and 
con -Christiana . 

£. It is claimed that Christians are all in this indeoondence move- 
ment, end that the non-Christians are not. One explanation for this aoparent 
pnenomenon is in the character of the two kinds of people. The Christians 
usually admit that they were in the demonstrstions when they were, being for 
the most part truthful. The non-Christians have no moral or religious ground 
which make it undesirable that they lie and hence they sav with impunity 
that they were not demonstrators even when they were. This is a partial ex- 
planation of the claim which has been made so often of late. 

3. At Soonan.an elder was beaten almost 100 blows, until he was nearly 
dead. At the same place prisoners were kept for three days with onlv one 
feeding. 

^, . 4 ,\ I] ? two ? laoes it is definitely known that the police used the kim- 
ohi( pickle) jars, which were full of food, as W.C. vessels. At Pansyuk the 
Church building was used in the same way by the soldiers. 

_ 5. At Papaik .the teacher of the Christian school was arrested and 
terribly used up, having been cut eight times with bayonets. Tho onlookers 
were so horrified that they tried to rescue tho man and because of this tho 
soldiers shot into, the crowd killing five and injuring more. 



KOREAH IEDEPEEDEHCE 0UT3HEAZ 



BEGIHIJIHG 

march ist., 1919 

PART V. 

THE CQKTIEUOUG 01? THE E0E3AB 
IHDEPEHBENCE MOVEHEET-EHOH APRIL 1st., OH. 



Dl 



SEARCH OF FOHEIGB HOUCES 

April 4,1919 

This afternoon, about 40 police and gendarmes came to our compound 
to make a search. Their chief objectives were the hones of Dr. Koffett 
and Mr. Howry. But after these houses were searched, they also searched 
the homes of Mr. Wilis, Mr. HcMurtrie, Mr. Reiner, Dr. ^aird, /the Fore 
eicn School Dormitory and Miss Snookls residence. They came with the 
double purpose of finding hoys who were hiding horc and for securing 
and incriminating evidence there was. At Mr. Howry's house they caught 
three hoys while one or two who had been near there ran away and tried 
to escape. Some of them did escape hut Kim Taisul did not and wae cap- 
tured directly in front of Mr. Reiner's house. Failing to capture all 
the hoys T/hom they wer6 looking for at Mr. Howry's house the police 
then went to the other houses as mentioned above. At iar. Sillis' 
house they took three others, one of whom was working for him as 
outside man. Another had come that day to soe him and happened to be 
there at the time. At Dr. Baird's they took Pak Hyung Nong, a college 
boy who had been acting as a secertary for him. At Miss Snooks' 
they took Him Tai Hoon, Miss Salmon's secretary and also the matron of 
the school. At Dr. Moffett's they captured Yi Kyum Ho and also found 
several papers of one kind or another, as mentioned in Dr. Moffett's 
letter to the American Consul . The best account of this scene is 
oontained in Dr. Moffett's letter, which see. 

In the evening Dr. Moffett and Mr. Mowry were called down to the 
police station for examination. Dr. Moffett was released about midnight 
but Mr. Mowry was held and sent over to the prison. For a full account 
of this see Dr. Moffett's and Mr. Bwrnheisol's letters. 
Arrest of Kim Taisul. April 4th, 1919, 5 P.M. 

This afternoon about 40 police and gendarmes came to our compound 
to search the homes of Dr. Moffett and Mr. Mowry. At Mr. Mowry' s house 
or near there, there were several boys and some of them ran trying to 
escape. Among these was Kim Taisul, a Junior in the College. He ran 
down across the gardens to the rear of Miss Best' 3 and Mr. Oillis' houses 
and then turning in came towards our house running between the Foreign 
School, Dormitory and Mr. Gillis' house. The police saw him running, 
and came up to our house by the front path thereby heading him off. See- 
ing that he could not get away, he stopped s ort within twenty feet of 
our front steps. One policeman caught him by the arm and then took firm 
hold of his coat collar. His treatment of the boy was all right, but 
several other police came running up the path and one of them rushed up 
to him and utterting the sizzing sound for which the Japanese are so 
famous struck him sever ly three or four times on the head. He tried 
to protect himself by stooping and putting up his hands. Then they 
knocked him down on the ground and then kicked him in the hoad three or 
four times until his face was bleeding. 

Having' seen the police come to the compound, I went out on to 
our front steps and sat there for a lon^ time, and it was while sit- 
ting there, within twenty feet of the spot where this s'oene was enacted 
that the capture was effected . There was absolutely no call for such 
brutality, tim Taisul did not resist the police in the slightest after 
stopping. He did no violence. He said nothing. But gave himself up 
axid acted perfectly circumspectly. 

Pyeng Yang, Korea, April 7, 1919. 

Honorable Leo Bergholz, 
American Consul General, 
Seoul, Korea. 



Dear Mr. Bergholz:- 



D3 

We planned for the opening of the new term of College 
and Academy on April 4th, after the vacation which bega? torch 5th, 

the students had been dismiss «d earlier than expected and diplomas 
given without graduation exercises because the night before the dor- 
mitories had been vioited after midnight by the firemen with clubs 
thZyl T 01 the , stu J e » tB dragged out and beaten. On April 2nd and 3rd 
,,iff? ™ as I systematic canvass of the city houses and students from 
anf nt^ ,°l B &T ^ Ste /' ° f the - b6aten > som * of them dismissed 

S ™f il 6 lMl , Mot arr.st. V.ord from the Chief of Police to one 
of our Japanese professors was that students entering the school for 
the new term must be sent to the police station whert they would be 

Slth^eatiM ^/£tvf 1<iS °i al \ ? U011 arrests ™ere usually accompained 

- ki ° kl ?S an<i such treatment before any investigation 
enroll ^ 2 a ° ndu °t> lt ™ as possible to expect any students to 
^ „ e * n<i so the Academy two students came, one former student 
Prefer? IZ IT' dl sa P pearing, however, upon the appearance of the 

Protect and his interpreter with swords who came to inquire as to the 

ll?tll°tl c °\^ n t & ° f ^ SOh ° 01 - At tbe College oS studen^c^ but 
left at oncj; upon hearing what the Chief of Police tad said "tether 

but 8 ±PLi B SSS!S* t S PrS r nt the 0p6niD S °f the school, I do no? know, 
out it may account for the non-enrolment of studo-ts 

aath^S a "ernoon, about 4.30 V.M., when most of the missionaries had 

? c i Prayer meeting at hrs. Holderoit ■ s home, a cordon of > 

?SfK^"f f onaa ™ es T 'as suddenly picketed abou^ our property, and p?o- 
were ?oLnhonff t a T S ^ P °i iCe * egan to se3roh our^esidencef! !e 
touL S 1 ° m < ? ne S f the !louse6 - 1 iaaediately went to my 
house, found the compound gates shut and gendarmes on guard, about twenty 
gendarmes and police picketing the compound and upon going in to the hcuse 
found my wifle and children watching some sixteen to twenty gendarmes 
police and detectives in charge of a procurator and his interpreters 
already searching three rooms. I asked the head man if he had a search 
warrant and he replied, "Ho, It is not necessary." I said, "I cannot give 
my consent to the search. "He then gave me his card and I said, "Of 
«o U rL y ? U oa ?/ orci t>ly search, but it will be without my consent." He 
said that would be all right. (I judge that as he was the public pro- 
curator he had the le^al ri^t to search even without my consent.) 
They spread through the whole house and in my study and Mrs. toffett's 
* ade a most thorough aearchjtff desk, drawers, papers, bureaus, 
letters etc., even going into my property doeds and safe. 
h« ^ e Lrf e v n °L rud< \ nor di srespectful and one of them said that 
"J ° °* J ^ th ? i } had to do as he was ordered. However, it was 
anything but pleasant to have to endure the indignity of twenty offi- 
cers, gendarmes, police ana detectives take possession of everything 
in order to find practically nothing. In study among my I7cre t£fy ■ s 
laTSings*- 6 draWereof hie de! * th «y found the miowi^nconseauelt! 

l.A copy of the program of the Prince Yi Memorial Service and the 
Independence Service of March 1st written in ink in Forel 

of £??i L pl !! C ? ° f P a 5 er v Witl1 a statement in Korean of the number 
of men killed at Anju and the numbers of those who had taken part from 
the several villages f Anju, in the demonstration. P 
thP ™n °wTt Pe dire °ted to the Theological Seminary, coming through 
t£L I 1 3Xaaie and post mrk on " containing five copies of the 

Se e |^^?°l,?r- Pape ^ ™ S had aome when 1 wa3 °in Seoul and was in 
the oecrocarys aJSt wlaero m Ko#ean letters are placed. 

t„v^S n f °* 3 ^ 3 ' le h - d I ever seen before and the procurator's in- 

o?S ?he r f?rst^vo r f t0ld ^ that ^ seoret ary also denied knowledge 

hou^^rt ^l^K^ 8 h ^ e ' they searched the outbuildings, the guest 

an em Pty Korean house in the lower part of the compound where 
my Bible woman and her son, my secretary, had lived for years and which 



front afor^f^r^fK 11 t0 occ "^y- As W£ WW trying to 9pen the 
/ere wnarentlv hPhr 5 * ouse ' ^ ^cretary came out of the back room, 
" tre apparently he had been sleeping for several niaVi+a /taia ' 

i^fl ^° USO x ? tlle lower ^ art of the compound.) They Seized hi» 

Ued him and according to the statement of my two sons who 11* It ' 

^ F t*Ll 0t T lt)j they hit bim < kic * ed bim7pu^chld him his noai 
.leecung, and one man hit him across the chcok with a short whin t« 

tb tt am ThP thin paper rolled up into a small ballad 

=i Tt? y v! . det ective told me that a boy had confessed that sever 
S ^Hafl^tfho^r ^ from the sLdy and tinted notice! 

* \% S ^ r M hl ? g £3y house ' the hou ^s of Kiss snoot to Howry Fr 

« g . ^rvttfgfcs s as. S',r , s l °Lxrss aw - 
s/Sja&Ss li sSrlrsas'S svsss. 

they kicked him in the head ™ t , f and knocked him down after which 
a student who W^SSfjSTJa^* to^^' ' 
on ou? p f ?Le r ^„ ^ ^osff/fd S*? W Of these being 
But as the whole population il'fear^f of m^^V 6 ?? 1 " em P lo ^nt. 
them, when they sot the mlir» J, of unlawful beatings, some of 

They' searched my coof alio but did nf i ^LT t0 6SCa P e c ^ture . 

-.heir captives and went through tL «l arrost . They marched off with 
they took another mi^eLrauh^d h^iv 11 ^ DoM «orie 3 from which , 
Prebysterian Oo??a^fof Professors I H I'?/ 1 ^ "? , in the Southern 
gone in there f v , ' told arrested a man who had 

from £ study," to whLS ? »t f P 1 ™t^Z a to take tw0 apographs 
I could get the next v a ■ aSh ;i ftr a receipt which they said 

and eight o i clock? Mr Mowry ^le^onVto^ \J5 rt ^tween seven 

police office had come i Ll^ a messen S 9 r from the 

gate and we went dom tSr rf J, S ° down - 1 met him at the 
there were three police and flnl + Sh ° Vm . lnt0 Q sma11 room whe re 

Mr. Moway was cal?ed out ?or exaction ™S m rty-f ive minutes before 
together in English when one Sf?^??; " ulle wultln S we *-ere talking 
to talk." Surprised ? relied «mlt l^™* " You aie not allowld 

up at once and said "Wait a mf^^!^ P W ! udder "rest?" He jumped 
saying, "Never S« i , aS r m t°" ? M /^ aci ^"tly 
and we continued our conversation ^hr., u* >P i led ' 0f courao lt is " 
kept waiting for another hour .^V,, After Hr * Uowr y Wi *s called out I was 
fore the pro^C tl^,M 61 ° U V° r be- 
a scribe and for a nart „f ^ etw t ? ho had searched my house, also 
na xor a part of the time another elderly official. They were 



very pointed in their questions, asking particularly about my knowlcde- 

w J 7 ' , ^ on ^ plGOe and 3t0ut tb e keys of the house in Which 
w £ M ^ Aether 116 have had the use of thehoul^in which 

he had been and whether he could have had the use of my mimeoLanhl 

belf wt Wlt Th^ tT.r\* n t j£° W l? tee ' aS t0 the use ^ whtch S ?^y S had 
disk in mv ?tudv d n? f th \ tllree P a P er s found in my secretary- s 

« i,^ 7 J 7 and atout ^ al3 aenoe in Seoul, about tee salaries of mv 
^^" ? a \ and secretar y and my own financial condition; laying ? was 
reputed to be very wealthy, owning much land. After an hour's 
questioning m which they learned that I knew nothiL had consented to 
nothing was m no way party to or knew of anything which may Sale 
been done by my secretary or others on the pla«e or with my mimlograch 

Mow™ h™" ffia<i0 + re <iuest for a policeman to accompany me and Mr. 
stored at' nill Z^L^^ ^^^had recently been 

clubl and \t £1 ™t o to ^.railway by two Japanese armed with 

«S+ +kS ? sale 10r foreigners to be out at night. Thev said 

t«^^ TOS n ° daBger tut 1 CQlled th « r attention to the facfthat 
thl w P r PerS wer e. publishing abusive articles about us and that 

S-nr, « \ °} SE Ja P ane f e had ^reat hatred towards us. They consented to 

do so? . g ^ t Sp0ak t0 them but was refused permission to 

. .•• After waiting some twenty minutes the procurator and kl« in" 
rS^esLf?^ t n i a waif ^o d £ hey ™ -" d a Policeman witVme. 

■bTm* yet finLhefand IL^T M ° Wry tUt ttey Said that his ^ination 

He came to see me and I suggested get Ur. Bernhetse? and at oncfgo to 



the police station, ascertain the ration, and St We. Howry were under 
arrest, to ask the nature of tha ehr.^'gaa , telegraph you at once, ask to 
see Mr. Mowry and send him food. ttr. Barabeisei will write you what fol- 
lowed. I hope that I have not writs** la too great detail, but it seems 
better to write some things which aey B4W or trivial import rathei than 
leave out the very things you may wspH to Snow. 

Saturday afternoon Apnl 6<:h, rive of V-iooe arrested were re- 
leased, Miss Snook's matron cook, Kiss i^iaoa-S secretary* the city school 
teacher Mr. Oillis' working boy and Dr Baird'6 secretary ana on Sunda* 
norning'Dr! Baird's translator was released, the translator reprotmg 
that while he was not beaten the others had been shamefully beaten 
while being examined. Saturday afternoon, Mr. Mowry • s secretary , who 
graduated from the College in March, came to Mr. McMurtrie's and said 
that he thought it best to give himself up to the police and not try 
to escape arrest. Pe then arranged that Mr. Bernhoisel should go Do the 
police office, Br. Moore taking him in his auto, and report to the police 
?hat his secretary was ready to deliver himself ^ if thoj r^uliseni 
out a man for him. Dr. Moore brought the man, a detective who knows all 
the students, back in his auto and Mr. Howry's secretary, Yi Posik, 
came out from Mr. McMurtrie's house and gave himself up Ji*. " cl j^*"° 
accompanied and the detective to the police station and we thus secured 
him immunity from beating, on the way. The secretary did this on his 
own initiative. He asked me for advice, but I told him that he would have 
to decided for himself. When the police came on Friday, h« had hidden 

Mld ?his P !s atrfneed- report now. I shall write you later commenting 
on the situation. I would say, however, that personally I do not believe 
Mr. Mowry has done anything which renders him liable to the law. 

Yours very sincerely, 
(Signed) 3. A. Moffett. 

Pyeng Yang, Korea, April 7,1919 

Hon. Leo 3erghol2, 
American Consul General, 
Seoul , Korea . 

Dear Sir: - 

Dr, S. A .Moffett having sent you a record of the events up to 
the time he left Mr. Mowry at the police station in Pyeng Yang, I will 
carry on throught the next day, Saturday April 6th. 

!■> Mowry, not having returned home from the police station by 
breakfast time Sturday morning, Mr. McMurtrie and the writer went down to 
the poV.ce office to inquire. They told us that he had been examined there 
the r>rov: ous night and being found guilty of crime had been sent to the 
w^son They refused to tell us what the charge against him was. They told 
us "to seek any further information from the court house or the prison. 

Cn the way to the prison we stopped at the post office to send you 
a telegram that Mr. Mowry was imprisoned. 

At the prison they said that Mr. aowry was there but could not give 
us any information concerning him but referred us to the public pro- 
curator. We then went to see thia official. When asked as to the reasons 
for the imprisonment he said that the Question was now being inquired 
into and until the inquiry was finished ho could not specify the charge. 
Asked as to whether he was liable to be confined for some time or not, 
the reply was that many persons were concerned m the affair all or 
whom would have to be examined so that it probably would take a long 
time, to finish the examination. He gave us a paper to see the prison 
officials allowing us to go in and see Mr. Mowry. Mr. McMurtrie went on 
home but I went to the .prison and after waiting an hour or so was grant- 
ed an interview with Mr. Mowry. We were required to converse m the torean 



B6 

language and nothing was to be said about the case. 

Mr. Mowry said that he mas in a room by himself which room was 
very good except that there was a privy in one comer from which bad 
odors arose. He said that the attendant was a very kind man and that he 
was bexng very well treated. He said to tell hie wife that he was all 
right and for her not to worry about him. 

The interview being at an end I came away. The prison officials re- 
quested that his meals be sent nio from his home and this is being done 
Bedding and magazines were allowed to be sent to him but they refused 
to allow a cot, a chair and a bottle of medicine to go in. They said 
there is a doctor in the prison and that in case of illness the doctor 
would ig give his services. 

Very respectfully submitted, 

(Signed) C .? .Bernheisedl . 

FIHHJAH' 3 VICTIM 111 SIX hEELS. (Apr. 13,1919) 

Last Sunday, April 13th, one of the Sunday School teachers at Central 
church was in her place for the first time since February. On March 
1st the day the demonstration began she went out on the main street in 
the evening to join the crowd of people who were out celebrating. Sudden- 
ly fire men with long poles having sharp iron hooks on the ends used for 
fighting fire, fell upon the crowds. This woman ran with others' up one 
of the very narrow streets leading the Central Church hill, some of the 
firemen in pur-suit. She was attacked by a fireman and injured by his 
ugly weapon. The other people disappeared and she found herself alone too 
ramt and sick from the injuries to go on. as she was bending over the e 
pam trying to support herself against a wall a woman, fortunately a 
Christian friend, came along and found her. She called help and took her 
to the hospital near the East Gate, where they gave her medicine and made 
her more comiortable. She knew her family would be alarmed at her long 
absence and asked someone to let them know where she was. Soon friends 
came and arrangements were made to take her home. The next day and the 
next she did not get better, but discomfort and pain increased. Then the 
Korean doctor discovered that she had some broken ribs. Plhen I first saw 
her she had been confined to the house twenty five days, and was only then 

tllVLa UP fu T , a l lttle wMle - ^ said tbat * ad fe een in such dio- 
tress and pam that she prayed to die. On Sunday April 13th a little more 
than . six weeks after the occurance she was still looking white and weak. 

CLEAN UP DAY 3HUTALITY.(Apr.l5,1919.) 

On April 15th the police department ordered the village outside the 
oi5 * y near our com P ound to clean house. Police and gendarmes with 

swords were much m evidence from early morning. During the day the houses 

tillage were visited by three sets of these men. The Foreans said 
that these men used much more severity with the peOple of this' sitae neigh- 
borhood than they had used in other sections of the city becausiTmtst of 
houses of the village were occupied by Christians. The Bible woman who told 
me the day's history said that two of her neighbors, one of them a man over 

y y? ars of age) had been beaten because he had not wrapped up the Jap- 
anese flag carefully or given it respectful care. She herself barely escap- 
ea a beating because although she had a flag it had been wrapped up in sue* 
a way as to make it wrinkled. By pressing out the wrinkles she managed to 
ma^e it appear presentable. The old man who was beaten had his arm disabled 
and the swelling extended to the muscles of his neck so that on the third 
turn'his held ** received tne bating it was veey painful for him to 

The people had been told that they must provide a fly swatter for each 
Sifv but'th 'f^-J 1118 " Provided a swatter for each member of tSe 
tamily but the two babies. The police soundly abused her and made her go 



37 

get a swatter for each of the babies. Commenting on the- Ijacldent she- said, 
"We don't object to the house cleaning, hecouse Ve know it is a good thing 
and for our advantage, but we don't like such acts of petty tyranny." 

At the house of another Christian woman in the neighborhood, the tenar 
in the same court yard as the owner of the house was beaten badly for not 
having taken respectful care of the Japanese flag. The young son of the 
Christian woman seeing that the police 'and gendarmes thought that the tenai 
was the owner of the place and hoping to save the man from further beating 
stepped up and said, "I am the master of this house, stop beating that man 
The police immediately turned on hiia and gave him and gave him a good beat- 
ing-. The tenant was badly done up, 

PHILLIPS' CHURCHES AS REPORTED OK APRILxX 17,1919 

Written by Mr. Phillips. 
As my assignment of evangelistic work, the Seventh Church in Pyeng 
Yang. City and some forty churches in four counties in the country have 
been given me to look after. At the present time it is quite impossible 
to get definite reports as to the conditions of these churches but to give 
an idea as to how many of my church officers are on the job today and 
how the congregations are meeting and worshipping, I write the following 
statement . 

PYENGYAflG CITY SEVBHTH CHURCH. The congregation here has never 
missed having its regular meetings on Sunday and Wddnaday night during 
all the time of the trouble. The helper there is on the job. He has ■ 
not been arrested. The two elders and all the other officers are attend- 
ing Church as usual. Only one member of the Church has been arrested and 
sentenced to six months in prison. He is a former college boy who later 
went to Japan to study. How he was implicated in this affair I do not 
know, nor do I know that he was connected with it at all. The Congre- 
gation in this church holds its usual and normal number. Especially the 
women attend faithfully . A few of the weaker men have ceased coming to 
church . 

CHUNWHA COUNTY . Thea?ena are 21 churches here, assigned to four helper 
and two pastors. One pastor of the Chungwha Church, Kim Sung ^han, is in 
jail. The other pastor is sick at home, which probably accounts for his be- 
ing out of jail. The church at Chungwha county seat is practically stripped 
of its officers as the pastor and two elders and four other minor 
officers are imprisoned. They did not meet for service there for three 
weeks until I went down myself on March 22nd and held two services and 
got them started again. There are no officers to lead the church, however, 
as those who have not arrested have had to flee from home. 
Since March 28itd the people have been holding little prayer meetings 
in the church conducted by a member who used to be an officer. He has 
already been arrested and beaten 15 lashes in prison and released. He 
never used to be worth much as a church member, having been "fifth five" 
for the past few years . That was the reason he was dropped as an officer 
in the church. How since his imprisonment he has come out again as one 
of the pillars of the church. Fifteen stripes on his bare back did not 
knock all his religion out him. In fact, I believe that it has been his 
making as a Christian. He has become indispensable to the Church now. 
Every ten days he comes into the city to bring money from the families 
of the offiecrs of that church who are in the Pyeng Yang jail. He brings 
this in to pay for the food that these men in prison eat. (When you get 
into jail here in Korea you are not boarded by the state, but you still 
have to rustle for your own grub, either pay the money or have the food 
sent in . ) 

As far as I know three other helpers, rather four of them are 
not as yet imprisoned. But they are not visiting their churches. Or 
B0izaBzjfefcz»apj5i80Bed«zBii they do go to a church it is to go quietly and 
not hold public meetings. Most of the churches here in Chungwha county 



^-f^fn^Vp^ 

oeiag held in the oS bu?i,J„„ \? hw is no servloe^tall 

east part of the coun" tv S^ 8 * 1S at *aH<"»H& ia tlle south _ 

then, after Z of^Je 'of??^* ^eat demonstration was held and eince 
ringing of theThurch bell and 1 T It f^^J^ 1 ' there has been no 
people do meet for cattS trL.l ® eo i 1J1 S a **W in the church. The 
exterminate^-by any meant P ^ ffieetln ^ s ' however, so the church is not 

and one eldef, and thre^o^f^ Tukohun is in jail, also his wife 
the Pyeng Yang fail ^nce tL ViH?™ °f tne cl « TCb - They are here in 
meeting fn thf church there kills thflS±K° h i tn ? re has * een 110 
northern territory. The Jendarm^ «t ^L lft f g9et c! ? uroh in a11 ^ 
to he closed. The neonL fv, J hlS ? lace orde:r ed the church 

group meetings W a « D re^d thlre'aW^^ ^ ^ 

whlther Se poflce woula U i r et thf^" a S ai *' . ^hnugh it is^oubtm 
people. S ^ d let themrasiDc even if thsro were some to lead 

to a place in the mountains and Irel^-h tn m 1 lsSi 1 0na ^ society to go 

the gospel before. He went wt S v ° pe 2 P u e 171x0 nad not heard 

a little group of about 12 ti ^i? ° ember T aad haB ^°^eded in getting 

leave thi! pllcf fot^reasoll^ne^lSt "thf d9cfded *° 
society is about don P c^a k * * the lo cal missionary 

The others reason is tha? it L^/" ■ f ° rtn ?° ai ^ for flis sa W- 
there any longer He sav^ tLt L °° me u lm P° ss -^e to do any preaching 
a Christian tie man ep L s 5** a man to 

a good thing to be a Christian ™La the \ sane ray, that it is not 
bayoneted and othfm^ r Q oie^p^&i 11 tll ? t 1 ? L r iB " aas S et 3bot 
for his preaching. I too advifed te.u him to wait a while 

way what the circumstances are and^ «Sv?S^' t ^ owias in a ^^eral 
go back to his home churoh ™rt'v,f? I f dvised this evangelist to 
this time when the church neat llV^ CaT % ° f Ms ovm P eo P le «* 

YOUKGV/OK COUHTX is so f tl LfZ H ^ COffifor t ao much, 
scattered there that I have no? Tel ^t* **} tC8 oil ^ches are so 
There are two helpers nil n? tl ee \ ab \ e to get reports from there, 
doing practi?ally P nolhin° excL£ / ^ ^ ' 0ther is at We, 

a large demonstration was hSd P bu£ not S? 1 ^ ' ■ ♦ ■ YUnS ™ n C0Unty aeat 
of shooting and many people killed ?v t?£ Ch " st ians There was a lot 
Koreans were unarmed te^v-i^* £ the soldiers. Of course the 
The church in^h™ tov^T^^^*?*****^^ 

here in the way of mee^in^s ^ Str ° ng - Thefe is not ^ going on 

MA. IK} SAN COUMTY. Mainp^an trr,+ ^ 
my territory. The Chrj^tw^ „fS . the worst of P lac e in all 
county seafa ^S^taLWS at a11 ' ^ Maingsan 

corralled them all in a Lall demonstration. The police 

and then commenced to firTo^ tZ I? t t U ^° VXld - ei l * a st0U8 w all 

In the scuffle one" Japanese" Iwo^?^;^^- " ° ^ " ° nC9 ' 
killed. Since then fU n CQ v. «o t ur ^ tn ^ fc Eoruaii pclice men wore 

started by til police and ^ZJSLL?? f ^ d . 0ut; B of tsrro has been 

have not had Ly demont?rat!on "S fll ta! tf ™^'" Tte ^^^" ( ^ theri 
to desist frombavinF any ujl L^' m? ey ha ' ir6 a31 teea ordered 
territory, and he ntf beL orfered tl X at^, " T h f per iE this 
churches under penalty of de-^th 4 7 hC ? e and not visit his 

out from Pyeng Yang was called ™ bv t?^ e y an S elist *om 1 had sent 
out and go home at once P y 6 P ° llCe aad orde «d to get 



D9 

VISIT TO THE PYENG YiiBG SAlBANSHO(Local court) . 
April 17th, 

On the morning of the 17th of April and and 

went to the local court to attend the trial of aertain prisoners 
whose trial was scheduled for today. We arrived early and so sat 
down in one of the rooms. Presently the janitor came m and prepared 
the hibachis for the court officials. A little later a messenger 
boy came in and said that there would he no court m this room 
today. We asked him where the trial was to take place. He said that 
on the far side of the building in another room there would be a 
trial but not in this rooto. We left and sought for the room. On the 
way we met another boy from whom we made inquiry. He showed us a 
similar room to the one we had been in. But we did not go in pre- 
fering to wait outside since the detention ward for the prisoners 
was near by. There we waited along with a number of Eoreans, perhaps 
30 in number. They, too, were anzious to enter and some of them es- 
pecially so as they had relatives under arrest, and they wished 
to get at least a passing glance of their dear ones. They told us 
that it would be impossible to enter as the officials were allowing 
no spectators. We believed this as we had seen some of these same peo- 
ple among the people hanging around the court house the day before. 
But we were not dismayed and waited. 

Presently we saw a police man leading two men with their 
heads covered towards the court room. We followed closely to the 
entrance. We noticed that the Koreans made no attempt to follow as 
they had learned from experience that they could not effect an entrance. 
We made an attempt to go in but the officer waved us aside. We asked 
whether it was not permitted that spectators attend. They said no and 
again waved us away. We then saw another group of about 18 prisoners 
being led towarfis another room. We again followed and tried to enter 
and again were waved aside. Then we returned to the first room in 
which we were told no trial would be held that day, and just at that 
moment a group of about twenty prisoners were being conducted into 
the room. We were greatly surprised at this fact, having taken the word 
of the officer that there would be no trial there as true. We tried 
attain to enter and again were refused admission. Then a messenger 
boy came up and told us we might go in. So we entered and had seated 
outselves when he again entered and told us that we could not remain. 
We arose- and went into the office cf the Public Procurator and there 
made inquiry whether it was not allowed that spectators attend public 
trials of prisoners. We were asked whecher there were any among the 
prisoners in whom we had a special interest. We said yes, there were 
some of our student friends. He then said that if the trial Judge 
would permit us m any room, there would be no objection to our 
attending, although he said, "In Seoul all spectators have been for- 
bidden to attend these trials". The room we were admitted to was 
the one in which this Procurator wa3 in attendance so we had no dif- 
ficulty in securing entrance. 

The trial presented no peculiar features. All admitted tnax 
they had participated in Independence demonstrations, but denied 
certain things with which they were charged. There were 18 prisoners 
to be tried. Eight were called up first, and all came from one local- 
ity and had taken part in the same affair. They ranged m age from 
18 to 57 in age. One only was a student. Three were women, one of 
whom was 57 years of age . Three of them were Christians and five 
members of the Chuntokyo. The trial lasted one and one half hours 
after which the Procurator arouse, and without argument asked that 
sentence of 10 months be pronounced on two prisoners, eight months on 
two others and six months on the rest. Judgement wa3 set for the 19th. 



ELQ 

-T !HRTaXU a ^T7m)y t T EIMffl_CaJAB--II«a. Apr. 17,1919 

On the 15th inst. all houses were ordered cleaned up, this being 
the official Spring clBaa-up. This was true only in specified dis- 
tricts of the city bf Pyeng Yang, hut in some of the adjacent country 
thj.8 day was also observed. The ^oXioe-and gendarmes took special 
pains to make this a burden to all the people. Never before has there 
been such exaction. But the burden was made spec ialiy heavy for thex 
Christians. The non-believers were hardly molested and often passed 
over without a word. Eut Christians were beaten and abused in many ways. 

In a certain village four Christians were beaten and the in- 
formant saw the whole affair. Three of these lived in the house near 
him and one in a house across the street. Asked as to what the people 
were beaten with, he said that three of them were beaten with a stick 
which was found in the yard by the house and one man was beaten with 
a laundry stick or paddle. Asked as to hard they were beaten, he said 
that the women were struck once each and hard, but the man 10 or 12 
times and very hard. So hard, in fact, that fcfc evening there were 
large welts across the back of his neck where he had been struck. 

DEMANDING GIFTS FROM CIVILIANS FOR GENDARMES. 
April 17,1919 

Word has been received from a man living near Pyeng Yang that 
the gendarmes are beginning to maSe exactions of the civilians as 
tMKgggtoBEM x a nrwTfeitaTTrgtw g:^ "Hush bribes". The police came to his 
house several days ago and said 

that two Christians near there had been similarly visited and told 
that the gendarmes were agiin talking of arresting them. They had 
been arrested once and beaten and they might be arrested and beaten 
again but if some present were sent to the gendarmes, they would not 
be molested. They were scared, he said, and sent rice and meat and other 
things and tried in this way to forestall any action from the gendarmes, 
rie was told that he had been arrested once and set free without beating, 
but that the gendarmes were talking about him again. It would, there- 
fore, be better if he sent some gifts. He 3aid he would think it over 
a little . 

Whether this practise is being followed in other places is not 
known, but there is no question that here is the beginning of the 
worst form of offical and petty squeezing of the old, corrupt Korean 
regime. In every place and in every way annoying and vexing" exactions 
are being madd of the people, and especially of Christians, inhere is 
the policy of "f rightfulness" going to lead the officials of thisisaat 
land? 

SYNOPSIS OF EVANGELISTIC CONDITION IN FYBNGYANG TERRITORY 
April, 21, 1919 

, , Country city 

Number of churches in territory 250 7 

" " meeting irregularly 13 2 

" not » at all 14 

No of churches circumstances unknown, but as far 

as we know meeting once every Sabbath 232 5(known) 

Bumber church buildings damaged, doors and windows 

broken, furniture & books destroyed 

No buildings were burned in this territory. 

PASTORS 



16 



Total number in territory 37 5 

Working as usual 10 1 

Arrested, now in jail ■ 7 4 

Unable 00 work, in hidings etc. 11 

Arrested, later released 3 



Dll 

HELPERS . Country City 

Total number in territory 43 5 

Working as usual 27 3 

Arrested, now in jail 4 I 

Unable to work 7 1 

Working partial time ( very carefully) 4 
Arrested, later released 3 

COLPORTEURS . 

As far as we know all colporteurs are working, in their fields, but 
very careful how they travel about not selling many books. Be have 
heard of one or two exceptions of where man have made many sales late- 
ly and preached to williagm people. 
OTHER OFFICERS. 

Cases of churches that are left without any officers to lead. All 
either arrested or in hiding — — -- 18 
TEE AHURCH ATTENDANCE. 

4 cases are known of where congregations have greatly increased. 
Others are of course below normal. In the city congregations numbers 
are often swelled by the presence of a large number of country people 
who have come in to visit friends and bring food to prSstaers, and 
hear the news of the country. 

One case is known in Sunan territory of where the heathen Koreans 
have driven all the Christians out of town, compelling them to leave 
their goods and their houses never to return, because the heathen say 
that if the Christians remain the soldiers will come some day and des- 
troy the whole village. The figures above are correct as far as we know. 
The information about some of our churches has been most meagre. We get 
no letters telling us about conditions. We have practically no caller 
from the country churches. We are- being much avoided by our people, and 
as we cannot get out to the country we have no way of knowing the real 
conditions. 

iiAN 76 YEARS OLD BEATEN AND ARRESTEE . 
April 21, 1919. 

April 3rd an old man, 76 years of age living in a near by home 
was dragged out of his home by the police because he refused to raise the 
Japanese flag over his house . Although he was very old, and manifestly in 
his dotage, he was mu3t terribly used by the police. They bit him, knock- 
ing him down on the public road, kicked and stamped on him with their heavy 
boots. They next tied his arms with cords, twisting them until he could 
not U3e them for three or four days. He was then arrested for 15 days. 

He was released three days ago, but still has large bruises on his 
chest and back. While he was being stamped upon by the vicious soldiers, 
they asked him, "Do you think you will go to heaven?" thus tormenting 
and cruelly using him. 

CHRISTIANS DRIVEN OUT. 
April 21, 1919 

It has juat been ascertained that the seven Christian families 
living at « certain village (KK) have been driven but by the other vil- 
lagers. They were told that unless they left the soldiers would come and 
shoot up the whole village and that it was better that a few left than that 
all should be shot. And so about 20 people were hastily aroused Saturday 
night at midnight and compelled to leave town early Sunday morning. The 
villagers broke in their doors and gave them no alternative, so they had 
little time to take care of their goods. A few things they were able to 
store in near by homes but most of their possessions had to be left as 
they were . 

That this move was at the suggestion, ye3 order of the police, can 
not be doubted. Eor only two days before this, the church held and bell 
tower were torn down and broken by villagers who are known to have been 
instigated to do this by the police. 



D12 

SOiiDIEHS APPROPRIATE CHUBCH FURNITURE. ' 
April 23,1919 

At a certain Market Town (LL) soldiers have "been quartered Cor 
some time past. There 'being no barracks there, the Chuntokyo meeting house 
has been seized and used as barracks. The soldiers have also gone to the 
Christian Church and taken all the furniture they found useful. This in- 
cluded lamps, mats, clocks, chairs and benches. Ho request was made to 
anyone for permission to use them. 

In this place the Christians have been so terrorized that since 
March 1st they have not been able to hold any Church services. 

Not only so but every houses has been assessed Ten 5.00 to feed the 
soldiers stationed here. 

EVAHGLISTIC CONDITION OF WESTERN CIRCUIT . 
April 23, 1919 

Number of churches in territory. 58 

1. Meeting regularly. 53 

2. " irregularly. 2 

3. Not meeting at all. 3 

4. Burned 

5. Damaged. 5 

(The damage done being broken doors and windows, destruc- 
tion of books, rools, pulpits and lamps.) 
Number of pastors. 14 
l.On their job, (two were hiding, but working now.) 

2. Arrested, now in jail. 3 

3. Unable to work. 2 

4. Released. 1 
Number of Helpers. 14 

l.On their job , (partially on job, -working carefully). V 

2. Arrested. 

3. Unable to work. 3 
Other officers; general statement. 

1. Number without official leadership. 6 
2. One church is reported as having increased in numbers 
worshipping . 
Remarks : 

The church in general seems paralized. Men, especially are 
afraid to meeti for worship, for fear of being arrested. Particularly 
is this true of the officers. Lack of leaders present, revoal the 
danger to all and constitutes a condition unfavorable to worship. In 
most of the churches where pastors and helper are at work, the work 
is done very quietly so as not to arouse suspicion. In some of the 
churches the people fear to have the helper call, lest that call should 
subject them to suspision and arrest. 

PARTICULAR INSTANCES NOTED III THE WESTERN CIRCUIT. 
April 24, 1919 

At Morak where the people of a number of villages gathered for a 
demonstration and shouted "Mansei", the police, one Japanese and two 
Koreans, are said to have fired into the crowd, killing a number and xaxsd 
wounding others. This enraged the crowd; and the people surrounded the 
three policemen, killing the two Korean policemen. The Japanese finding 
shelter in the police quarters, kept firing out of the winiow, whereupon 
the building was sat fire and the Japanese finally killed. After this 
the gendarmy of Kangsa was notified, and gendarmes and police were sent 
out, who damgged the church, breaking doors, windows and lamps, and made 
many arrests,* The pastor's house also is said to have been destroyed. 

At Pansyuk a number of officers came and tore down the bell-tower 
and carried away the bell-clapper; broke all the glass the windows of 



D13 



brthchurch and school -house . It is a largo church, and all the panes in 
some dozen or more double windows were smashed in, except six panes. All 
the Bibles, hymn hooks, church and Sunday school rolls, and all the school 
records were destroyed, having been burned out in the yard. One of the 
school-teachers and his wife, who were living in the quarters on the com- 
pound, had looked their room and gone away. The door was broken, and the 
police entering broke open the door of the Korean cheat in which their 
clothes were looked. They took all the clothes out and burned them in the 
yard. Not being able to find the school-teacher, they took his wife and 
brought her to Pyeng Yang where she is still in prSson. 

The police caught and bound eight men whom they striped and beat 
in the church yard; and one of these was burned with matches on the 
tenderest part of his bidy. This was told me in the presence of many a 
owners by one of the men who was beaten. Three women'were striped naked 
and oeaten, because they would not tell where their husbands were, (most 
±-Jo;.y they did not know where they were). These three women are Leader 
Fa-^-a wife, Elder's Choi's wife and Elder a tra rft Cho's wife. The two form- 
er were oeaten so terribly that two weeks after when we were informed of 
£~ ' ? hsy ro 2 r ? still not able to come to church. 'The latter, Elder Cho's 
wife, herself told me that she was taken out of her house by two officers 
one a Japanese and the other a Korean, was taken from the village by these 
two men out to a pine grove behind the village, where she was fSrced to 
ta*e off all her clothes and was beaten terribly there by them, while 
sitting on the ground. 

Elder Choi's mother said that the officers took off with them a 
large picture book which was in the house, and a fine ^American bicycle 

of considerable value. Another man, by the name of Deacon Choi, was 
arrested and brought into Pyeng Yang, where he died in prison less than 
ten days after his arrest. The family was notified to come to P.Y.and 
take his remains out for burial. Some time later one old lady who had 
tilt w worki ?S £? r ner but who had run off when he heard that the offi- 
cers had come to the village, was asked by the officers to nresent the 
hired man. She replied that she did not know where he was, after which 
they proceeded to beat her severely. 

There has been no services in the church since the beating of the 
eight men Many of those who do not have hired help to do their work, are 
not aole to attend to their farming for fear of being arrested. The above 
trouble was not due to any demonstration at Ponsyuk itself, but because 
of what had happened at Morak, where some of the peonle from Ponsvuk 
had gone at the time of the demonstration there. 

Some two or three weeks later, I visited Ponsyuk and saw the 
damaged property and verified what is described above. 

At Won-chang, there was a slight demonstration which passed off 
without any trouble whatever. 3ut *wo or three days later, some of the 
people from fton-chang and surrounding villages attending the demonstration 
at Morak, where the police fired into the crowd, killing and wound im; 
iany . Of the men injure at Morak, some were from Won-chang and sur- 
rounding villages. Of the Won-chang Christians, two sons^f an elder 
t™, 11 eS ' E1 ^ r Cha was ^ ot through the arm, a deacon was shot thru 
^ s ^«' ? n0 ^ e V?? » ahot thru the le S- These three with others 
..ere brought to the Hall Memorial Hospital in Pyenf. Yane Later Elder 
Cha's older brother was attacked in his own house at night, and in 
attempting to escape was thrust through the back with a bayonet and 

E1 ^r Cha a house was visited, his wife beaten, and 
'X ttt ^ U £ a P h i s l300ks - Some theity volumes were thus consigned 

o the flame si Most, if not all of these, were Christian books. All the 
f;™ 1 fiords were bumed, only the Japanese school books escapel 
.Che pastor of the church was callod into the police at Pyeng Yang and 
questioned, and released. He m ent back to Won-chang church where he 
held services tne following Sunday, after which he was again arrested, 



brought to Pyeng tang and Is now awaiting -trial. .^W^'tl!^^^. . 
^■^•Sbf 1 ^ ^^? S SfSi. as soon as he was better and 

w^'f^ed^ 

SaVE somf of ?hesf a^ew^s ago!!^ ^en 
and his son, was sentenced to ninety strokes, thirty strokes to be given 

° n T'SaXl^f laSS?*Klm Oi Choi of Tai-pyung village, was attend- 
ing ?^^•^^1^^ ee l^«BSS. ll •of ,, ^ one^o «* 

TO? ia tt. taSUr.tl.5 »hicl followed. »• ™f »JiS*?rl»l. 

prison awaiting trial • ^ g QN ^0^3 QHUECHSS 

April 28, 1919 

Mr Welbon personally visited the church at Pai Sanmak to ascer- 

wSch hlfcoSe to home To test out thf truthfulness of the Ko reane 

^figSesf ground eeing left for doubt. The Koreans had not exage ra.ed 
the damape done tut hid given an accurate statement of things as they 
actually were. The soldiers or gendarmes at Pax Sanmak had run their 
luns thxou-h the lattice doors creaking and ruining them. They had 
foSe S sashed the pulpit, the benches, the la* p and other^urn 1- 

t>,p * P et iron stove had been overturned and beat in so tnax 
it was a ruS! The maf s on the flow had been ruined by the men tramping 
*round with heavy hob-nailed boots. , .,_ 

Belbon investigated the whole matter and then went to the 
Chief of Poi?oe and asked how such a thing could have ^ppened The 
Chief expressed surprise at the report, feigning iterance of the affair, 
although his own men had committed the deed. He said tnat" some had men 
must Evidently have done if and that was all the satisiaction th*t 

C ° Ul |av!nf seS 6 what was done at this pl.ee and also noting how 
accuSf ttl report had been brought to him, he d ec "ed ^tjfcewwa. 
no reason for coin.- to the two other churches m his district whicn were 
Reported wrecked bSt accepted the Koreans' reports on the basis of this 
investigation. 



K0KEA.1I IHSEPEHBEHCE ODTBHSiii 
BEGINNING 
tiARCH let.) 1919 

PART VI. 

BELATIOS OP THE POBBTGW MISSIONARIES 
TO THE INDEPENDENCE OTRISiBG. 



PART VI. 



RELATION of the fokeigh missionaries 

TO THE PBESBHT UPRISING. 

The T?hole of this guestion is teo much sul3 ^stice 
still to "be a fruitful subject for discussion. More 
evidence will nave to be forthcoming before any deduc- 
tion can be made. For the purpose of furnishing the 
future editors material for rightly answering the quos 
tions involved, the following articles are preserved. 



« 



El 



March 6,1919 . 
(From Mai II Sinpo March 6th and Tokjo Pipo liarca 7th) 

THE LAY? IS SEVERE. 

The decision of Bublic Procurator , after er-amination 

all will 'be sent to prison. 

In thinkia, over what punishment should be me tad out to tut 
needle whoatShis time have stirred up the minds of the people by this 
^pr!s!4, the p^curator of this region (Seoul) has to said that such 
an affair as this uprising is not the safae as common offences and that 
ve'ry' severf punishment will be meted out and that in the trial no lenien- 
cy will be shown but it is decided to ^ive severe punishment A great 
many have already been seized but orders are given out to continue the 
Sure of insurrectionists as there is plenty of room planned for them. 

BESIilRCHIKO TIi:: UI SSI0NARIE5 . 

(Copied from a China Paper of about March 26th.) 

The Censor at T7ork. 

The following 'letter from Korea dated March 22nd has been received :- 
The Cwnsor is at work in Chosen and Japan. The truth regarding She 
situation here cannot be published. "Official report" and interviews 
appaar from time to time in the Banish papers printed m the Empire 
but as yet a truthful account has not appeared. Facts are always distort, 
ed to fit into the idea which certain ones wish to prove, and hence 
the real situation ma. cannot be punlishod. One English daily announced 
several days ago that it had been prohibited from printing a certain 
document which it wished to print. The vernacular papers, too, are wide 
of the truth in their reports. Either they do not know the truth, or 
will not^ear it. Whatever be the cause, they are deliberately besmirch- 
ing the characters of the missionaries and are trying thereby to lower 
them in the estimation of the people among whom they are working, as 
facts which are considered undesirable for the people to know are 
prohibited by the Censors, so articles which actually appear are with 
their consent. Hence the libels which these vernacular papers print are 
not without the permission of the in officials. If the P la i\*r£k 
were proclaimed by these papers with the samo vehemence and boldness 
that they heraled these libels, not an issue would pass the Censor, and 
the papers would doubtless be confiscated. 

METHOD OF CENSORSHIP LOWER JAPAN'S 0O0L NakE. 

In order to platfe before the world, therefore, the actual state of 
affairs, it has been necessary to call upon reporters from China and oto er 
foreim countries to jjereonally visit Chosen and to see things for 
themselves. The world outside Japan is being made acquainted with the 
conditions which prevail in Chosen before the people in japan are per- 
mitted to know them themselves. Even the Japanese residents of chosen 
are kept in ignorance of the real facts by the garbled reports which the 
native papers are compelled to print. It is a pity and a shame that the 
good name of Japan should be so lowered by such methods of censorship 
and libel. The truth regarding the situation in Chosen must become 
known to the world sooner or later just as the famous "conspiracy case" 
finally became known. The impression which that case produced upon 
the world was tremendous and all to the discredit of Japan. The im- 
t » T «r%t« presaion which the present situation will uaBe must prove even 
more impressive. But the prohibition of the free reporting of these facta 
will eventually prove the have caused Japan greater damage than the methods 
of dealing with the situation. 



E2 • 

LIBIiLLODS- STATEMENTS REGARDING MISS lOIiARIES . 

The Govei-tiroent through responsible Officials have officially ex- 
onexW the aiaeioaariee of complicity "1» the present 'upri 8 i^. x,ut 
rhe native prose, a part of which acts in a som-onicial capacity, con- 
tinues even after this official aur.ouacomint So :>riat the most scan- 
dulous and libellous statements r8f/u*lJ«g tlw JnKija msaonanes. 
If saoh statements were to appear in & aiajj-a one ci tne loreign 
countries froo which these Bleoicn&riM cobs, the papers and editors 
would be held responsible tc the v-iy .limit o* tne law, and the conse- 
cu.-r.cas would be most serious.. C.t difficulty attending foreigners' 
sWring justice agalnet such libellous statements in this country, how- 
eve:-, has 4-.30t any one from attempting to secure redress. And the 
fact t?iat tno missionaries never resort to the law to correct sucn 
un evil may account for the extreme boldness of some of the papers, 

... Lcabtlees have come to look upon the missionaries with soorn, 
fee-iing that whatever may be said against them, no action of law sill 
be taken regarding it. 

The following are a few of the many articles which have appeared 
in the native press . 

Prom Osaka Ashi for March 17th. 

THE EVIL VILLAGE OUTSIDE THE BUST GATE, Pyengyang. A clever Crowd. 

Outside the West Gate in Pyeng Yang there are some brick houses 
and some built after the Eoroan style, some high and some low These are 
the homes of the foreigners. There are about 100 01 them in all, ana 
they are Christian missionaries.. In the balmy Spring, strains of music 
can V Heard coming from there- Outwardly they manifest love ana mercy, 
but if thsir minds are fully investigated, they are iouad to be filled 
with 11. t- «m and ere*.*. They pretend to be here for preacuing, but they 
are secretly stirring vp political disturbances, and foolishly keep 
passing on the vain tall, oi the Koreans., and thereby help to foster trou- 
ble . ?nese are really the homes of davils. 

The head cf the cro;/d is . The Christians of the place obey 

kiM an they would Jesus himself. On the 29th year oi ±iyun Chi (lieijij 
freedom was "iven anyone to believe in any religion he wished and at 

tha ■ ti- 3 came to teach the Christian religion. He nas been in 

py.. •., ~ra*2 for rn^re than 30 years and has bought up a great deal of 
lan:. He is really the founder of the foreign community. In this corn- 
art, t 57 because of his effort there have been established schools from 
"ml* pr v.t« - cue** to the College and a hospital. Tihile they ere educa- 
tijiffi.'+he re -oan children and healing their diseas-s on the one hand, 
on ?ae other iriiid there is concealed a clever shadow, and even the Koreans 
th-mselves tali of this. This is the center of the present uprising. 
14 is not in Seoul, but in Pfceng Yang, It is impossible to know if 
.lis statement is true or false, but we feel certain that it is in Pyeng 
Yang in the Church schools, - a certain College and a certain gins' 
school,- in the compound of these foreigners, iteally this loreign 
couuuuity is very vile." 

from the Chosen Shimbun, Larch ISth. 

"The disturbances at Joshin were instigated by a 3ritish mission- 
ary (name printed in full). The people are so incenoeed against him 
for stirring up this trouble that they are bent upon killing him." 

Cn Harch 12th the same paper printed: 

"The stirring up of the minds of the Koreans is the work of the 
American missionaries. This uprising is their work. In investigating 



the cause of the uprising two or three missionaries have been arretted 

and have been examined There are a ^ood nony shallow-minded people 

among the missionaries and they make the minds of the Koreans Dad, and 
they plant the seeds of democracy. So the greater part of the 300,000 
Korean Christians do not lite the union of Japan and Korea, but they 
are waiting for an opportunity • for freedom. 

"These missionaries look upon the present Korean as they did the 
old Korean and they consider it proper for the Koreans to say anything 
they want if they only enter the Christian schools. They take the 
statement of Wilson about the self-determination of nations and hide 
behind their religion and stir up the people. 

"However the missionaries have tried to apply the free customs of 
other nations to these Korean people who are not wholly civilized. 
From the part which even girl students in Christian schools have taken 
it is very evident that this uprising has come from the missionaries. 

"Behind this uprising we see the ghost like appearance (To-gabi; 
waving his wand. This ghost is really hateful, malicious, fierce. . Who 
is this ghost wearing the dark clothes? The missionaries and the 
Chuntokyo. These missionaries who havs come out to Korea, what are they? 
Their wisdon, character and disposition is of the low trash of the 
American nation. They have sold themselves for the petty salary of Yen 
300.00 par year, and they crept out, on reptiles on their bellies, as far 
as Korea? There is nothing 300a that can be said of their knowledge, 
character and disposition. 

"These messengers of God are only after money and are sitting 
around their houses with full stomachs. The bad things of the world 
all start from such trash as these. They planned this dirty work and 
got into league with the Chintokyo . If all this considered, these 
missionaries are all hated brutes." 

THE FOREIGN DAXLIL& NO BXG$P£Ifl§< 

In the foreign dailies similar, bat much milder charges are al- 
lowed to appear. The Japan Advertiser of torch 9th says: 

"Missionaries of a certain country are behind the Eorean mobs!" 
declares "a high official of the War Department" according to the 
Hichi Hichi. (Again reported by a native paper.) 

This military officer is also quoted as saying : "Behind the mob is 
instigation by missionaries of a certain country." 
In the same issue it is said: 

"According to the Hoohi, it is rumored that several American mission- 
aries have already been arrested on suspicion of having instigated 
the Korean outbreaks, and are nor under secret examination." 

" "kr. Komatsu, late Director of Foreign Affairs in the Government 
General of Korea, is yioted by the Hoohi as sayinj: "Vihenever dis- 
turbances occurred in the nast, they (the hisaionaries) assumed an un- 
concerned air, rrithout doin^ even sc much as issuing warnings or advice 
to their congregations to show respect for authority and to prevent them- 
selves frou being implicated in the trouble. 

" The American missionaries include in their number some wbo 

have no sound judgement and discretion. Such people confuse the ideas of 

the Koreans , As a result, somo Loroans converted to Christianity 

are so foolish as to have recourse to radical action It may 

safely be declared that missionaries are responsible for the fact that 
the advanced ideas of foroi ji countries have been diffused without 
any nodif ications amon^ the Koreans, whose state of civilization is 
not yet very high, and for the fact that aaon^ tho^e taking part in the 
disturbance were girl students." 

It would be unfair to give the at~jve quotations without at the 
same time referring to the official statement published in the same paper 



E4 

on the 16th "officially exeneratlag the missionaries." 

"An official statement has been issued by the Director of the In- 
ternal A-f^Co-iJ^ -exonerating the laiasionaxiea from any complicity or fore- 
knowledge of the recent agitations, yjhich effectually disposes of the 
statements to the contrary appearing in the Japanese papers." 

This ecsooeration was issued on the 14th and published in the Japan 
^_mtn>jrttsai' on the 16th. It must have been known to all papers, there- 
fore, both native and foreign. Still on the very next day, the moat li- 
bellous of all these libellous statements appeared in the Osaka Ashi 
<»nd is Quoted above under the caption, "The Evil Village Outside the West 
Gate, Pyeng Yang." "To the contrary" means very little when the truth is 
not printed but instead libels. These libels are all which the Japanese 
public are apt to see or read. One denial act over against scores of 
libel3 means nothing. What is necessary is that the truth and only the 
truth be published. If such is not forthcoming, the articles ought to be 
suppressed. 

FOREIGNERS AND INDEPENDENCE AGITATION. 

Statement by Chief of Foreign Affairs Section. 

ilr. Hisamizu, Chief of the Foreign Affairs Section of the Govern- 
ment-General of Chosen, in an interview with a representatives of the 
Eeijo Nippon concerning the Korean independence a itation, exuresses 
hie regret at the currency of baseless rumors that some foreign 
residents have taken part in it . He deprecates the dissemination of 
such rumors without any tangible evidence. Should any foreigners be 
found to have instigated or addeted the riotors, the authorities would 
not hesitate to arrest and punish then. The Government-General, 
Mr. Hisamizu, continues, has sent a note to foreign Consulates asking 
them to warn their nationalities from approaching the scene of demon- 
stration and similiar movements, because by doing so they eapose them- 
selves to the danger of being misunderstood. An insinuation appeared 
in the Press that the American Consul General was implicated in the 
trouble. This owed it3 origin to the fact that the Consul General passed 
near the scene of demonstration in an automobile. It goes 
v/ithout saying that the insinuation is gross injustice. Mr. Hisamizu 
speaks strongly against harboring unwan-onted suspicion against goreign- 
ers . 

NO FOREIGNERS IMPLICATED IN KOREAN UPRISINGS. 

The Japan Advertiser reproduces from the Hochi, a Tokyo daily, a 
statement attributed to Mr. Midori Eoc-atsu, former directer of Foreign 
Affairs of the Government-General of Cho3en, concerning the recent 
Korean uprisings at Seoul and elsewhert-. The Hochi introduces Mr. Komatsu' 
statement with a rumor that seven American missionaries have been arrest- 
ed on suspicion of having instigated the Korean demonstrators. This 
rumor is as entirely groundless as some of the accusations laid by 
Mr. Eomatsu in the stateuent attributed to him. 

It is very probable that Mr. Komatsu has not beea correctly quoted. 
Having lived at Seoul and had long experience with foreign missionaries 
in Chosen for many years, Mr. Eomatsu ought to know better and should be 
the last ma.i to make sttcb remarks as are attributed to him. Most probably 
the representative of the Hochi who interviewed him on the affair, held 
the idea so prevelent among amny Japanese pressmen, that foreigners were 
at the back of the Korean rioters, and under the influence of this 
erroneous nation interpreted hi. Komatsu' s harmless statement in a way 
congenial to hit liking. It is inconceivable that kr. Komatsu made such 
fialish remarks against foreign missionaries as the following :- 

» "Whenever disturbances occured in the past they assumed an unconcerns 
sd air, without oven doing so much as issuing warnings or advice to their 
congregations to show their respect for authority and to nrevent them- 



selves from being implicated in the trouble. Nay, they even showed a 
sympathetic attitude toward such disturbances . They are propagating 
Christianity in Korea, but pay no interest of Japan, the 3°*?™^°^- 
Korea. While engaged in Christian propaganda work, the *merican m^sioa- 
aries run schools and diffuse foreign political and social ideas among 
the half -civilized people. The principle of liberty u recklessly advo- 
cated among them, this having an- evil influence upon *£°» ea 
minds, which are consequently tainted with excessively radical ideas. 

"The American missionaries include in their number some who have no 
sound judgment or discretion. Such people confuse the ideas of «*° 
Koreans, who are in a similiar mental condition as those Japanese student 
who are now making an outcry for democracy without understanding what 
this stands for. As a result some Korean converts to Christianity are so 
senseless as to have recourse to radicial action." 

Mr. Komarsu knows quite well and while in oof f ice declared that 
foreign missionaries were very O ood friends and assistants at tae 
administration in the past, as they continued to be, in the work of bring- 
iu* peace and good order in this peninsula, and of making Koreans good 
citizens of the Empire. It is not true to say that i.; the past they 
neglected to withhold their Korean congregat ings from being implicated 
in political treubles. On the contrary, they have always striven to make 
their followers law-abidin and whenever occasion demanded it were active 
in restraining them ffom going to extremes. It is not true either, to say 
that they pat no attention to the interests of Japan, the sovereign of 
Korea Well knowing that smooth cooperation with the Japanese authorities 
will bear fruit for the good of the Korean people, who naturally claim 
their chief attention, thsy have always shown eager to assist in the 
execution of any plan drawn up by the authorities to enhance the welfare 
of the Koreans? The missionaries may not have endeavored to promAte the 
interests of Japan in a di*ect way, for thoy are neither agents nor offi- 
cials of the Japanese Government, but they have always dene so in an in- 
direct aay. Further it is not true to insinuate that American missionary 
are chcifly responsible for the diffusion of ■ foreign Political and social 
ideas among the Koreans. This cannot be possible, for all the schools 
under their management are under the strict supervision 01 tne government 
and all discussiSn of politieal sublets are vetoed m the classrooms. Hor 
will or can the American missionaries give political speeches from the 
-ulDit. The idea that the American missionaries besides tieiii u propagators 
Of Christianity, are political - teachers and agitators is simply preposte- 
rous. There can be no doubt that foreign political and social ideas Of 
very advanced or radical form have found their way into Chosen. Bat it is 
easy to imagine that the channels through, which these "dangerous'' ideas 
are conveyed are many and various. They may come through newspapers, 
magazines, books, thaverlers from foreija. lands, students returning from 
Japan and foreign countries, etc. It is simply absurd to inpeacn the 
American missionaries who are probably among the least responsible ror 
this offence, if the diffusion of advanced ideas may be so called, as be- 
in- the parties chiefly responsible for it. Finally in regard to the re- 
mark that "the American missionaries include in their number some whifih 
have no sound judgment and discretion", we mat say that even the worst of 
them has enough good sense and judgment not to utter such silly and in- 
discreet remarks . 

In this connection it is interesting to note that the Japan-Adverti- 
ser, quotes in the same issue in which it reproduces Mr. Komatsu's all- 
eged statement, Dr. .-eiji hishida, who was in the service of tne I'oreijjii 
Affairs bureau under asX. Komatsu, as having remarked, 'The reports in 
circulation that the Christian teachers in Korea are instig.tors, or at 
least leading participants in the rioting in Korea, is an old story and 
quite absurrfd. It is foolish to say and repeat that the Korean teachers 
are inciting the Koreans to insurrection, although it is the usual thing 



^6 

that is charged every time there is a little trouble. V/e are in a position 
to indorse Dr. Hiehida's statement and positively ascerte that no mission- 
aries are implicated in the recent trouble. 

In an interview a representative of ours had with kr. kfttsuo Usami, 
director of the Internal Affairs, Mr. Uaaai declared that he satisfied 
that no missionaries were concerned in the disturbances. This clear state- 
ment by a high and responsible official of tho Government ought to dispel 
any erronous suspicion that may still linger concerning their attidude. 
But if more explicit vindication is needed, here it is. It is the gist of 
a political statement given by iir. Sangi Kokubu, director of Judicial 
Affairs: . , . . . 

"Humors have been rife that foreign missionaries incited the distuib- 
ances or at least showed sympathy with the rioters. These rumors owe their 
ori in to the fact that axion the leaders of the rioters there have been 
found Christian pastors and students of Christian schools, and 80 it is 
not to be wondered chat they gain curranc 3 . Jut that they are entirely 
groundless has been established by the result of investigation into tho 
matter conducted, by the authorities. The authorities have carried Thorough 
and strict inquiries concerning it and are satified that there 10 no trace 
whatever that Coreignors instigated the disturbances. Nor is there any 
evidence that they knew beforehand that they. knew of the occurance of the 
trouble and gave support to the rioters. It is wrong to harbor suspicion 
against foreigners without justifiable ground. It is still more to os con- 
demned to spread thru the press false reports and baseless accusations 
asainst foreigners, fabricating such reports and accusations out 01 mare 
suspicion, such acts will excite the ill-feeling of foreijiers against 
Japan and may cause trouble in international relations. Should any foreign- 
ers be found guilty of sidition of similiar offence, the authorities will 
have no hesitation in prosecuting them, but as none have been xound to be 
responsible for the recent people, people at large should cast away what- 
ever doubt they may entertain against them." 

(1'rou a Japanese paper of ±i.pril 9th.) 

THE AkEtilOaHS' COHHLCTIOH WITH THL i-JxbjaflT P I6TUB3ASCS3^ 

From the firstthere has beau much talk of Americans' connection 
with the present disturbances. On the 4th day of the ^rd month a search 
was made for the first time of the American houses. (Search of the 
schools) On the 4th day of the 4th month the second search was mads by 
t,vo officers of the law (procurators)ijt accompanied by police officials 
and a lar e nuiaber of police and gendarmes. They searched 8 houses, with 
the result that Uoffott and ilowy were arrested. That night Moffett, about 
12 oclock, was allowed to return to his home. Itovrry was imprisoned, iiowry 
is 39 years of age. He ia a teacher in the Sung Sil school and the Prin- 
cipal of the Sung Tub school and of the Sung Hyun Girls Lower school. 

(From a Japanese paper of April 15th.) 

THli. FOKEIGi? MISSIONARIES *ND THE PBESE NT DISTU RBANCES. 

The Unprofitableness of the Christian Church. 

The foreign missionaries seeLi to be behind the scenes and pulling 
the strings in the present uprising in Korea. Ignorant Koreans and weak 
young people not understanding the affairs of the world are being guided 
by these devil leading strings. All Japanese residing in Korea are not 
only thinking this but talking about it. The Japanese officials seeking 
proof of this aregnashin^; their teeth and using every el fort to ascer- 
tain the truth. Not long after the uprisings began, after just a month, 
like swift-wind and eudden thunder the police officials of Pyengyaag fell 
upon the missionaries' houses and searched them, and found some great of- 



fenders agaicst the law and evidences ef their cfime. These things have 
bton mentioned in former issues of our paper. The minds of the Japacuce 
are now at peace since they have the evidence that, jui>t as they thought, 
these disturbacnes have been managed in the dark by the hand of the 
Western demons. After the case has been tried and it has been proved be- 
yong doubt that the foreigners have done this the minds of the Japanese 
will not again be so disturbed. Before the case is tried we cannot say 
that they are offenders, but it is enough to know that one of thea is an 
offender. Hot only in Pyengyang, but also in Seoul, the past month miss- 
ionaries' houses have been searched. The iron rod of punishment is about 
to fall there also. At Taiku, also, the houses of missionaries were search 
ed by officers of the law. Seeing all this it is evident that such work 
is prevalent throughout Korea. The houses of foreign missionaries and the 
evidences found there of connection with the present trouble are known 
and the Japanese kno«v now why the foreigners have been thinking and do- 
ing, tfk and they (the Japanese) hate the unvisdon and wickedness of the 
missionaries. At such a time the whole Christian Church iiiould be punish- 
ed. Because of a fev.' unwise missionaries the whole body of missionaries 
receives a bad name, but we do not think that should be so. In the uiads 
of the Japanese there is always* a frightful thought that stings and trou- 
bles. The reason for this fearful thought is that the foreign misaionarie; 
ar^& appearance preaching the Sospel of fiaith, but reality are busy with 
political affairs. Before this the German missionaries' activities in 
the politics of Chiaa are known to all the world. The securing of Kaiou- 
chow by Germany was the work of German missionaries. The many mission- 
aries in Japan and China are engaged in dangerous activities and works 
of darkness, - and what is their true calling, these works of darkness or 
the -reaching of the Gc3pel? Judging from their past actions, their minds 
are "full of hidden shadows. Now the missionaries of Chosen have minds 
that are crowded thick with these dark shadows. The purpose of Japan to 
unite the two countries, Japan ard Korea, in our opinion is frustrated by 
the foreign church. Therefore that the present dioturbacnes are due to 
the activities of the foreign missionaries is not to be wondered at. 
The truth of Christianity nover changes, but the followers of Christ- 
ianity do change, and real followers of the truth have become few. Are 
there many sincere preachers of the truth? Of xtanm those who hear the 
preaching are there many cincere believers? The recent war in Europe 
was a war of Christian nations. The true Christianity has already died 
but the skeleton of it remains. Christians of the so-called Christian 
countries these days are not true followers of the doctrine. Therefore 
the great and most terrible war in history arose in Europe and millions 
&t men died. But when we proposed the question of abolishing racial dis- 
crimination, at the Taris Conference, the western nations did not look on 
it with favor and did not allow it to pass. Proa now on we must be watch- 
ful of the Western teachers and their followers. We must see to it that 
the missionaries make true Christians of their followers in Korea. 

(Prom Mai II Shinpo, April 9th.) 

THE AMERICANS' CCMKSuTIOM >;IIH THE PKBSBHT DISTUHBAUCfcS. 

Prom the first there has been ijueh talk of .Americans' coiuiection 
with the present disturbances. On the 4th day of the 3rd month a search 
was made for the first time of the American houses. (Search of the schools) 
On the 4th day of the 4th Month the second search was made by two offi- 
cers of the law (procurators) accompanied by police officials and a 
large number of police and gendarmes They searched 3 houses, with 
the result that iioffefct and Howry were arrested. That night Moffett, 
about 12 o'clock, was allowed to return to his home. Mowry was impri- 
soned, iiowry is 39 years of aje. He is a teacher in the Sung Sil ■ 
school and the principal of the Sung Tuk school and of the Sung Hun 
Girls Lower school . 



(Seoul Press, Larch 22,1519) E3 



VHAT FOHDIGH lilSOIOM.jUEO C.N DO BOW. 

There can be no tv/o opinions as to the iterative necessity of re- 
storing peacu and order to this laud as soon as possible. The agitation 
is gradually subsiding and before many days pass Chosen will, we hope, be 
ae quiet as before. Nevertheless it will not be easy to heal the illfeel- 
ing and rancor created in the minds of many Korean people by the recent 
double, and it will take a long time to reconcile tlieia to the Japanese 
administration. This can only be done by giving the Korean people a more 
liberal administration, by satisfying all their reasonable wants, and by 
offering them better and wider opportunities for success and self -promo- 
tion. Ho doubt the Government intends to do all theei things and in time 
will carry out new policies on democratic lines. Obviously, however, it 
is impossible to introduce a great change in administration in a dfaort 
time . 

What is now of urgent importance is the restoration of normal con- 
fiitious, and ail well-wishwre of tho Korean people should help towards 
the consummation of this desirable state. It is out of the question on 
the part of the Government to accede to the desire of the Korean demonst- 
rators and as long as they continue to carry on their agitations, the auth- 
orities are bound to check their activity by force. The Korean demon- 
strators ought to have ^een by this time that it is not only perfectly 
useless but detrimental to the interest of their fellow countrymen to 
keep up the agitation. The longer they continue to defy the law, the 
sterner will be the Government measures taken agains.t the, and meantime 
millions of innocent people should cooperate with the Government in en- 
deavoring to calm dovm. the situation. 

Per the doing of this good ..'ork foreijn missionaries seem to us 
to be in a particularly advantageous pccitionl To be quite frank, we 
think that they would have rendered a great and good service, had they at 
;helm beginning ofjJur the trouble, but forth more efforts to persuade 
those Christian Koreans, who associated iliumsclvej with the followers of 
tho Chuntokyo in the independence- agitation, to stop it by telling them 
that the theory of self-determination was ap^Iicaole only to nations dire- 
ctly concomod the war, and that no Powe-r would help tho Koreant in their 
drcam-liko dosire. But in acting in such a way missionaries would have 
run the risk of losin^ their popularity among their Korean followers for 
a time and so it is only natural that they did. not do so. 'Sje can well 
sympathize with them in the attitude of neutrality they took in connec- 
tion with the trouble. But it is not ourselves alone who wish that they 
would show more moral courage and tell the truth to the misguided Koreans 
and ao endeavor to get then to retrace the erring stops they havo taken. 
There is no shadow of doubt whatever that the missionaries do love tho 
Koreans and sincerely desire their good, but it appears to us that some- 
-imes their love is shown too negatively. A really good friend must 
occasionally show thoso whom he loves a manlier sort of love, point out 
to them frankly the errosrs they may have committed and try to help them 
out of the difficulties into which they have fallen. In the preseEt con- 
dition of things foreign missionaries in Chosen have great opportunities 
of doing great service both to the Korean and Japanese people by showing 
their Korean followers the folly and useleosnesa of indul^in^ in empty 
demonstrations. We earnestly hope that they will not let ther.e opportu- 
nities slip by. 

(Seoul Press, April 10th, 1919) 

AGITATION AND AMERICAN MISSIONARIES . 

It i3 reported that on Tuesday last, the Public Procurators of Taiku 
Local Court, accompanied by a police foree, went to the house of a Koroan 
member of the American Presbyterian Church named Pang Choong-chong, in 



E9 

Naazan-aachi M.d maic a domiciliary search.. Th6y than searched the re- 
sidence of the Rov. H.E.Blair and the Bev. H.il.Bruen. It is no doubt 
superflous to say that such was an outcome of the examination of prison- 
ers connected with the agitation. 

MB. EOkaTbU EXEUIHS HIS ATTITUDE TOWARD FOBEI&N MISCIOn ARILS 

IN CH03EH. 

To The Editor of the Seoul Press :- 

I read with a tailed feeling of pleasure and regret you sensible 
comments on my alleged statements concerning foreign missionaries, in 
Chosen in connection with the irecent uprising? . 

Vihen the report of an intorvie" 1 had with a representative of the 
HOCIil on the Korean affair, was peproduccd in the Japan Ad«drtiser, 
several friends of mine called my attention to its apparent misrepresent- 
ation of my views; hut I did not think it necessary at that tine to take 
steps to correct the same, well remenberin_ the late foreign minister 
Mnrquis Koiaura'a remark: - "If newspaper intelligence should bo taken 
seriously I cannot allow myself to sit on my portfolia even for a moment," 
with which he tried to console one of the foreign Ambassadors who compl- 
ained to him against a Tokyo daily printing a distorted report of his 
opinion concerning the relation betue.... Japan and the country the represent- 
ed. 

Bow that my alleged statement has become an objection of discussion 
in certain quarters, I feel constrained in this particular instance my 
determination to keep silence for all newspaper representations, in 
order to remove possible cause for false impressions which mijht other- 
wise be created thereby to the detriment of foreign missionaries in Chosen, 

Fortunately, you have, incidentally of course but none the less 
correctly, stated the actual circumstance connected with the statement 
in question, as if you were personally present at the interview I had with 
the Hochi reporter, when you say; "i.oat probably the representative of the 
Hochi, who interviewed him on the affair, held the idea, so prevalent 
among many Japanese pressmdn, that foreigners were at the back, of the 
Korean rioters and under the influence of this erroneous notion, inter- 
preted Mr. Eomatsu's harmless statement in a way congenial to Ms liking." 
I understood that ouch was the case, unluckly not during the interview 
but only when the distorted report was reproduced in the Jatian Advertiser 
from the Hochi, as the reporter or any staff of the latter had never 
taken the trouble to place for any inspection the copy in which my allege 
statements appear. 

A young unn, introducing himself as a Hochi reporter but unknown to 
me before, called on me at my office, and at first asked my opinion 

regarding the Korean affair. I tried to explain at some length that the 

recent trouble seemed to have originated in the misguided conception of 

the self-determination of races^ He did not appear to take fancy to that 

phase of the affair; and repeatedly put questions as to the attitude of 
foreign missionaries, such as to whether they were nixing up with 
politics, whether there were not antcsirable persons among them, why 

they did not prevent such demonstrations on the part of the Koreans, etc. 

Hy answer to the effect that their duty as missionaries being solely 
to preach Christianity, they were always keeping aloof from politics, 
seems to have been rendered as follows as translated into English in 
the Japan Advertiser: 

"They are propagating Christianity xn Korea, but pay no attention 
to the interests of Japan, the sovereign of Korea. $ 

Another answer of mine, - that it would be flattery if I were t o say 



E10 

that they were all saints, and while being eager to teach Koreans to be 
law abiding citizens, they did not seem to enjoy so much influence over 
Korean students as to induce tham to refrain from resorting to extremes, 
was transformed to such a statement as, "The American missionaries include 
in their number some who have no sound judgment and discretion," or "Kay, 
they even showed a sympathetic attitude towards such disturbances. 

During the interview the Hochi reporter carefully and deliberately 
withheld from my knowledge the intended report of rumor that seven mission- 
aries in Chosen were arrested in suspicion of having instigated the riot, 
the very report which was to bo printed in the forth coming edition of his 
paper with his statement as an introduction or indorsement to it. If that 
fact had been discli&sed to me at that time I would have most emphatically 
denied such impossible and absurd rumor and advised him to wait further in- 
formation by way of protecting the good name of the paper, the young man 
represented. But then he could never have succeeded to induce me to make 
any statement concerning foreign missionaries in Korea suitable to his in- 
tended purpose. 

This unpleasant affair reminds one of the co-called Conspiracy 
Case which took place some years ago. In that case, as in the present, 
certain groups of Japanese, including pressmen, and even officials, sus- 
pected erroneously though honestly that a number of missionaries had been 
-i.nvolv.ed in the plot. Several Korean converts who had been arrested, made 
confessions falsely as proved afterwards, that' certain raissioaries had 
taken part in the conspiracy; and rumor ran that chief ringleaders were 
to be arrested. Some persons were of the opinion that the confessions 
were forced from the Koreans by means of torture, while others thought that 
the motive of the Koreans in making such cxtraddriary confessions was to 
involve the administration in international complications. At all events, 
tbere was a Government official who from the very beginning unswervingly 
adhered to a belief that the accusation was wholly unfounded, and strongly 
opposed in the face of the combined pressure of police and judicial auth- 
orities to any drastic measure, insisting that it would be contrary to any 
universal lege! pratice to arrest persons upon whom verbal testimony with- 
out being corroborated by any material evidence, although such was penais- 
sable under the existing procedure in Korea, On consequence, no mission- 
aries were molested during that once famous event. 

That official was none than the present write himself. His long and 
close contact with foreign uiusionarias in Korea and consequently his bet- 
ter knowledge of their noble character and self-sacrificing 3pirit render 
it impossible for him to attribute to them any comprising motive or cond- 
uct in the present demonstrations, as in any other untoward occuronces. 

Tokyo, March 26,1919 Mideri Komatsu. 

(Mai II Sin Po (Daily News paper)- April 20th, 1919) 

"EOBEAH CHHISTIAIlu VOLUrfAHYLY DEBASING THEMSELVES » 

The Koreans by comparing their land with Judea, and JSpan with the So- 
man Empire voluntarily and in a 3tran^e manner give themselves a low posi- 
tion. The re-aeon for this is that fron 100 A.D. to 300 A.D. the Jews re- 
ceived bitter persecution from the Room Empire. The infamously wicked 
tfero especially persecuted the Christian Church and many zealous christ- 
ians met death. The martyre ^ho gave their lives became the pattern of 
the believers. Therefore whatever order or whatever penalty for crime or 
-ihatever punishment for crime the Government General decrees the Korean 
hristians at such times think of these martyrs and for disobeying the laws 
-he punishment they get they do not consider a disgrace osr shame but regard 
_t as "or horn nam kut" (glory? ) , Tor their faith is sincere and they think 
that the meeting of such penalties is only persecution. All believers are 



Ell 

not like this. The ones who have a mind though only as little as the hair 
of the head to oppose the Japanese are like this. In the present distur- 
bances there are christians Y;ith faith like this who will no doubt decide 
to give their llveB. 



(Same Daily Newspaper) 

THE FAITH THAT THINKS LITTLE OP COOHTBY. 

If we say that there is a faith that does not think of country it is 
a most dangerous faith. From the beginning there has not been a faith like 
the Christian Faith that has thought so isuch of country. Look at the Je- 
vfiah Church which preceded the Christian Church, it was intensely patriotic , 
The Prophets be speech and deed taught and influenced the people in this 
respect. When the christian church was established, the Jewish Christians 
shed tears of blood over their fellow country men. 

Today if we speak of English and American Christians they are all lover, 
of country. Therefore for their country they give their livos on the bat- 
tlefield. Some die and only their hones are left. If the people of Japan 
believe in the Christian Church they will help their country to increase, 
and will assist the growth in civilization. Formerly christians thought 
much of ttoniv country, but now if it io said that they think little of coun- 
try it is not because they think badly of Christianity but because they 
have followed the example of missionaries, who do not teach love of coun- 
try. Korean Christians have faith like this, the faith that think little 
Of country. 

If we speak sinceroly of the union of Japan and Korea, Korean people 
and Japanese officials ought to work together for advancement in civili- 
zation and for reforms. But the Christians of the Pres. Church and the 
members of the Chundokyo have no such thought . If we think ofl tiva Declara- 
tion of Independence made by them, it may seem that they think something 
of country, but we think that they are utterly ignorant of meaning of coun- 
try and of independence, and democracy and they cannot explain what they 
mean. The foolish Chundokyo followers who know only the old order of thing; 
anti the "High Collar" Koreans who associate with Americans are responsible 
for the present disturbances. Certainly they are not persons who love th- 
eir country or are anxious for it and Judging from their words and actions 
we are always sure ofs Thinking of tht; present disturbances it would aeem 
that the advance made and the reforms accomplished ia the last ten years 
have about half of them come to nought . If we inquire who is responsible 
for this, it goes without saying that it is the Koreans. Then it appears 
to us that the Americans who have 3tood between the Koreans and the Japan- 
ese may havo some responsibility, and it beheeves the Japanese people to 
think of this. 

(,£rom Mai II Sin Po(Daily Newspaper) April 12th, 1919) 

THT SEARCH OF Tin: AMERICA!! HOUSES 
Agitators and Evidences ofi Crimes Found and Carried Away. 

Concerning the connection of the foreigners with the present agitation 
for Independence in Chosen, it is well known that motit people believe in 
it. It w^3 plain that the foreigner^ in various directionss have been * 
active in the agitation of the Koreans, and on the 4th month, 4th day the 
police dept. of Pyeng yang besides the house of A.W.flillis searched ui 
teven other foreign houses. The exact work was thit>:- 

1. The Search of the Houses:- Eight houses searched. Besides Gillis, 
seven others foreigners in Pyengyang were watched (spied upon) and by 30. 
Byeng An Province Police Bepts. vigilance and severe watchfulness it was 
found that at this time in Mowry's and Moffett'e houses the editors of 
the Independent News, and the people who were threatening and terrorizing 
the police and shopkeepers were hiding. Officers of the Lap were asked 



immamimmm 

MiW^tf^ a* eleven 
hou 3 r e L 1 ap d h ?hf^?Lfid e n I ^ ependeilt tIe " S ' - Ho^tta 

Moffett's house wai n. hrmai* Zi ZZ Property.— in the lady's house of 
Two apographs Ilso weS founl P P6rS fitudents not to study. 

A Dauer tolling ° *f ?! round.- a package of Independent News was found 

(Buildings search* continued) * coanectl °* s the work or not. 

Hoieri McSuSe' Acade^ teacher ^erican A .W .Gillie, 

lee Snook, American |orei^ -rh Am ^ S ^ G ^ rlS SchoDl American Velms 
Miesionar* to. Bai?d ItSt tt^L S?" ^2 Oittins, Hoi Pres. Am. H 
and Uowry?a housesf forfy leAdarmel anT^f? ° f tbe ^ arched Hoffetta 
Place to intercept ^^JS*^tS^J^^^^^ at stable 
police and gendarmen mado krWr, o? «L u p ^ he Oncers taking other 
The foreigners all asktdw^w ^^ v,^ 263 the obJect of their vloit. 
replied that they haf not to ?L£ ?? f ^ d searc £ . brants . The Officers 
aace with law. HaviL made* this k™£? ?h * "^"f the aearch ia accord- 
following results.--- a^idep rtn^?^ %hey f earch ed the houses with the 
inala iSSnd. ^on Mowr£ a^dVoffeJt s aix , h ? USeS ««»» were crL- 

it had the appearance thar me n hidin- in t^n» * ei ? g seai ' oh ed, hecause 

houses, six other houses we?e searched US ° S fle<1 t0 tile otber 

Acade^ St'S^ Hyup the tL r le 3 ovi^ W -^ i1 ^ 8 ' *»" 0f the »•»• 
t*i*l year student fAfi?^ ^wC^S^f* Chm ^ School 

'.Copied letter) 
Chinnam po SO SOT IL PO APIUL 9th, 1919 

The search oi Foreigner- s Eesidences in Pyengyang 
W^trac^Lf iflhl^cf ^n^f^^ 8 ^ 

activities of the revolt have^eT^^^^f 70 the Korean '6 in the 
?rom the beginning we nave thought S£f ? direction and guidance. 

«>« the 4th day of the vrlle^t ^£S>, ^ ^^^ctxou was being giv en . Now 
that American^ °ere not mder ?£e iuS*d? a ?L t0 thOUgllt ° f Korea »s 
the Law went to the Corned of the^erS li'li^T**' °/ f±a ^ ot 
the secret work that Mowry had been dotn*" »t ^ varies and made plain 



-^U^ other missionary f ^^r^o^or^tf 

^SSf^ police depart*** '^eceivi^ ^ they decided they would 
search the foreigWIja ^uses. K e °" v ^ " £h at 4 o'clock, and on ft 
make the search on the 4th day of the 4t ^ a °^\^ uses they suspected 
that day sent officers of t^^/^* $ ter that they went to other 
moat, - namely those of ll0 f r ^t ana uowi^. * d genaara€S and eta- 

houses. To make the search they sent forty poll ^ £ - h officers f 
tioned them to intercept any who might try "^^f^^hed the houses, 
the Law accompanied hy these policeoB n and °^ ile the two 

They found in six houses Lorean offenders ^ hiding -orobably 

houses mentioned above were ^ «^f f°£f in Howry's house 
flad and hid in other house. As a ro„un o or ^ documents relating 
there were found three hidden m ^°f r ^;' evidence to the Officers, 

to the uisturfeances, which ^ o^ied aroyoe wxa« Korea2IS , 
With the evidence that kowy had P^ected i den toe ^ ^ 
the Officers were sure that his £°^fL anizad These offenders were most 
Besides Kim Tax Sul ten offenders were f°^f a - ,{t Besides there was 
of them students at the Sung Sil Academy ^ Coll^. ^ 
11 Elder of the presoyterian Church and a ^^^ffHw 

-s found hidin S 

in a foreigner's house and easily arrested. 

THE ABBESS OF liOVTBY . The crime of kiding ^iminals^fte^^ho toueestarf 
been searched Officers of the law came ni, After the examina- 

asasi -*ss«v' " J £€4™ sL BOT 3 s asst. 

straightly charged and released. 

TIE HESTOBiiTION Of YAKG STKiiETS TO THE IB fOBW AITEABAKCE. 

After present disturbances began for a Ion -time ^shopkeepers 
clostd the P doors of their shops «*d f °pped *»s -ss Th o -thorit xe- 
were very much disturbed over ^ f e cc * ,, Tne people of a 
open their doors, hut they would not l^tea ^\ffi ee ) will be attained, 
certain country will help us and one ^^^^hat the source 
Because they believed this vain thing 3£ wao plain ljL 

of such foolish «^^ 1 «5^,??^ r a toSf & Koreans that 
Department by searching the £^1^0*0 were not under the jur- 

their thought was not njit «U*t J-^if^^* without inundation, 
iediction of the Japanese, and tnat -ach ^^"*- d w * oreant ^ beliaved 
and that such rumors were false . to o ™r? e " y to this tine the 
this and were hiding in foreigners *™se- "J**""^, J^uy tut when the 
wild and false rumors deceiving tne people nave Uw&u d zhc 

housos of the foreigners had been searched, the ggf^ ** ^ £* re 
annfiirinee of the streets was changed, ana nom "~r «' „„„.„•, 

of?he stops weTe opened and business -as resumed, except in several 
inctaucos where the owners had fled. 



214 

April toil, 1919) 

"IHTERVIEB ftlTH THE CIVIL GOV JBOB OF KOBE,." 
3y our Dpecial Correspondent 

Seoul, Korea, March 25th. 

With the view to securing an official statement and view of what is 
happening in Korea at the present time, I presented the letter of intro- 
duction with which I had been furiuiehed in Peking to the foreign office 
to day. I was received very courteously by Mr, Saburo Kisamidzu, cheif 
of the Forwign Affairs Bureau, and after talking to him for some time a 
messenger came in and in formed me that His Excellency, Mr. Yamagata, 
the Civil Governor, would be pleased to see me, hut that as he was 
leaving for Tokio on the morrow he '."as only able to give me but a short 
interview. After the customary introduction I told His Excellency that 
while I had come to Korea principally for my health it was also my in- 
tention to learn as much as possible the present movement of the Koreans 
for Independence, and that it was my intention to travel through Korea 
for that purpose, I told him also that I had come as a neutral observer, 
and that I was anxious to obtain as far as my capablities would allow 
a fair and honest account of the present demonstrations, their cause, 
etc., and asked him, as far as his liaiteu time would allow, to give me 
his own views on the subject. 

His Excellency said that if I went into the country at the present 
time it would he impossible for ne to obtain a true idea of the work 
that Japan had carried out in Korea during the past eight years on acc- 
ount of the disturbed state of the country. He explained that the 
Government, against great opposition, had attempted to carry out reforms 
covering a large field of operations. He also explained the conserva- 
tism that had to be overcome, and as an instance explained the old method 
of the Korean farmers in clearing land cultivating the same for various 
crops. The attempt of the Japanese Government to persuade the farmers 
to use better seeds for the growing of rice and other grains was met 
at first with strong opposition, the Koreans maintaining that this was 
an attempt to interfere with their domestic affairs. Although today the 
majority of them had discovered that it was to their advantage to use 
the seeds procured fwr them by the government, still in man,/ of the re- 
mote country districts there were many farmers who persisted in using 
their own seeds and cultivating the land in the old fashioned manner. 

He also pointed out that the schemes for the improvement of the land 
were too numerous to be discussed at this presant moment on account of 
the limited time available for the interview, but in every walk of life 
the Koreans were in a far better condition than they had ever been be- 
fore was evident to any one who cared to go through the country, even 
Jo Jhe most remote villages. 

Concerning the present demonstrations by the Koreans, His Excellency 
made a very important statement. He said it was started by the society 
or organisation known as the Chundokyo (Heavenly VTays Religion), that 
they had been followed by the christians, the Juddhafcts and others. 
The movement, he stated, was practically under the control of the people 
in the large towns who had beca giveu the advantage of a good education 
ia schools established by the Japanese since they first took over the 
country, and that it vias in the main supported by the younger members 
of the population. He went on to explain that he was extremely sorry 
for the innocent people in the interior who he knew were entirely iggo- 
rant of the cause of the demonstration and like sheep wero following the 
lead of others. He asked hoi was it possible for the people of their 
type to know anything about Racial Self-Determination. 



I hare 5«**ted «nt to thfct it struck me that if any one was re- 
sponsible for the present trouble it was the Ministry of Education, that 
the demonstrations were a proof that Japanese education in Korea mas a 
success for as far as one could judge education bad brought about the 
realisation in the minds of the Koreans that they were entitled to certain 
privillegoa which were at present denied them, that they were entitled 
to have something to say as to how they should be governed, and that they 
should be given greater freedom. I said that it appeared to me that while 
the Korean authorities had taken great pains to raise the standard of edu- 
cation among the Koreans they themselves had not altered the systam of 
government and control of the Koreans since the time th#y annexed the 
country. I added that instead of drafting the newly educated usu into 
the government service and making them the servants of the state the Japan - 
ese government hud only grudgingly admitted a selected few into its ser- 
vice. I expressed the opinion that the reason, or one of the most import- 
ant of the reasons, for the present discontent was due to the small part 
the Japanese authorities had allowed the Koreans to have in the administra- 
tion of their country. 

In answer to this, His Excellency frankly admitted that there was a 
certain amount of truth in what I had said, but he pointed out that unless 
minuto consideration was given to the subject too much 6tress would be 
laid by foreigners on this matter. 

The Government, he said, had for a long time past been giving consider- 
«Jex*k able time and thought to this question but the ignorance of the old 
sjyled officials and the youth of the newly educated ones and their lack 
of experience made it impossible for the Government to place them in high 
official positions. Lookin directly at me he asked: "Do you yourself 
consider that after the short time they have been under our educational 
system, which at the most can only be eight years, that any of these young 
men are capable of carrying out the duties of any high official position?" 
I admitted that I did not think they were capable of filling high offices 
but that I considered that they should be given offices of less importance 
and allowed to progress up the official ladder. 

His Excellency said that it was absolutely untrue to say that the 
Koreans were given but few positions under the Government . Nearly all 
a the country magistrates were Koreans. The men had not been given these 
positions because the Government was of the opinion that they were not 
fitted to fill them, because the Government knew better. 

The Koreans were given these offices because the government was anxious 
that the Koreans should take an interest in the government of the country, 
and to encourage the younger generation to enter the government service. 
He explained that the majority of these magistrates were so" ignorant of 
their duties that they had to be supplied with trained Japanese clerks 
to assist them to carry out their duties. The Government, His Excellency 
stated, were also employing a large number of the younger men, and more 
would be employed as they became fitted for government service. He fran- 
kly admitted that these young Koreans were not receiving as high a rate 
of pay as the Japanese, and explained that this was because they had not 
yet reached the educational standard. He said that before any Japanese 
could enter Japanese government service ho had to pass a civil service 
examination. At the present moment the Koreans were unable to pass this 
examination, but measures were now being taken to give them the education 
necessary for them to do so. When they did pass the examination it was 
the intention of the Government to pay them at the same rate as Japanese 
undertaking the same work. 

Referring to the present trouble, His Excellency said that it wa3 
mainly due to the professional agitators who had been working outside Of 



216 

a number of these men managed to &et "^° o ^° u ^' ^ a t Q ^ vlad ivo6tocfc 

for their own personal ^ain. 

The Korean societies in Europe and America as well as the people in 
Korea itself were carried away, sain the Civil Governor, by President 
Wilson- s wlicy or ratherV a misunderstanding of it, concerning racial 
s£?-determIna?ion. Continuing he said, in ^ir i ^ru. 

™»anins thev use it as a sort of battle cry or slogan. Tho-e agitators 
Tn toxica and Europe desire to cause ^"^J 1 ?^^"?^^ 
worldT and the greatest use has been made of it to foment disorder. 

on account of the pressure for work His Excellency had to close the 
interviewing pfini He e*pre«sed his V^ret^t^f llt^l^' 

s°ide of thf a^stion before the question before f f P^aL^f ejection 

ap£s n H ss£x5s smss.w 1 s t ^-.,ss^iS-» 0rt - 

Hre sorted f!rs? Dy the Chundokyo is very ^?^t, especially m it 

the m?ssioAar ios-Ea7rni-^nythin.r to do wit^the B? n sin d T- 
{From Shanghai Gazette, April 8th, 1919) 

•IHTEHVIE1 WITH THE CIVIL G0VB380H Of KiMEA" 
A Korean Beply 

The Editor, ihan^ai Gazette. 

Sir-- in reference to the interview between your special Correspondent 
Snd'the civil governor of Korea published in your columns yesterday I 
SL^he opportun!^ to clear the great misunderstanding which a reading 
of the article ^question is likely to preduce in the minds of your read- 

CrS 'l The statement of the governor to the effect that Korea has materially 
prospered unaer tL Japanese^domination is nearly true . Bu t we o« not^ 
attribute this seeming prosperity entirely to the of for s of the Japanese 
government. In this connection we have to pAint out that m the f«-« 
fllcfThe prosperity has resulted in enrichin- the purses of the Japanese 
Secondly? if?s Sfto the changing spirit of the ti^es - There is aaterial 
upheavel all over the world and surely the Koreans who ^f.J^ 1 ?*^,^ 
seVerence could not have allowed the opportunities of ^tering themselves 
to slip away as if there were no Japanese m the country I?* "tastitated 
forget that most of the Japanese innovations in Korea have been instituted 



El 7 

to facilitate the exploitation of the country. Aat w9 ^-^°f" e4 n !^°" 
mist will percieve that the Koreans as a utm are much P° ^, f s_ 

titute, under Japanese domination than they were during the old re fa uae. 

2 2 The governor admits that the whole country is in a state of fer- 
ment? but hf is guite wrong in tracing the movement to the J "Heaven wor- 
shipers" or the Christians or the school-boys. In fact, the preson t 
riaiaa is only an outburst of the deep-seated feelings 01 antipathy and 
anility engendered in the hearts of "the people by the ^tlee B ^o^ga 
of the Japanfse government proofs of which can be found "^"J™ 8 " 
shooting at innocent women and children. 3rM»t lag ^!«™I^Ld 
was started by boys educated in the Japanese schools, it proves Wond 
a doubt that the Japanese educational system is defective and does not 
satisfy the needs of the Korean children. The people, Ur . Editor, have 
not followed blindly in this movement. They nave been driven by the con- 
stant tyranny and oppression of the government to adopt these measures. 
SoSeverpeaceful a people may be, they resort to violence when driven to 
the extremes. This is a logical truth. 

This also -oes to establish that the Japanese policy of tilling the 
national f-eUng in the minds of the young Korean and of J*P^" n f t ^ 
is doomed to failure. The Japanese educational system has proved itself 
not only to be useless but also highly detrimental to the Korean national 
interests. 

3. The governor's statement that the disaffection is due to the fact 
that Korean! are not given high positions under the government which he 
attributes to their want of education is a confession that the Japanese 
do not mean to educate the Koreans properly. How can we be educated when 
we are not provided with a single university in Korea, when all the high 
class Korean institutions arc closed by force, when they are not allowed 
to go out for education and when we have been impoverished to the extent 
of destitution? The allegation as to the Koreans' lability to pass the 
Japanese civil service equation is an attempt to throw the dust into 
the eves of the people abroad. Those of the Koreans who have been given 
ounortunities have made their marks wherever they have been educated. 
lirSiicaa and the British universities boast of a number of korean 
graduates of distinction. The fact is that the Japanese do not want us 
to participate in the government affairs. 

4. There are no professional agitators among the Koreans. The people 
are smarting under the iron-rule and their hearts are bleeding The ex- 
odus of about one-twentieth of the population to foreign countries since 
the time of annexation proves that the Japanese rule has been conoideied 
as highly injurious and to the ruinous nation. Those who knOT say that 
the present rising originated right in Korea under the very nose of the 
Japanese spies whose number is as countless as the stars m heaven. 

5. lir. Editor, do you agree with the Japanese governor that the prin- 
ciple of self-determination was meant only for bel^erent nations? If 

it is so, then either President Wilson has deceived the world or tne Jap- 
anese governor has put selfish interpretation on the words oi .he reat 
American statesmen. He leave it to you to judge for yoursilf . 

6. Wo hereby declare most solemnly that the missionaries have nothing 
to do with o ur national wo rk and that we are quite competent to handle 
nur national ^glulIoa llgwF ^^g^E^^r^^ we are. very sorry 
thaVthe Japanese, in accordanc ?-"their crafty and suspicious nature, 
have Kiven u nnecessai y trouble- to so many innoce nt missionaries. We are 
delighted to know that the eyes of tiie g overnor have Been opened to this 
fact, though very late, after so much injustice has been done to tnese 
noble men. Vie hope their respective countries will take japan to task 
for this unwarranted high-handedness. 

Yours truly, A . 



KOREAN INDEPENDENCE OUTBREAK 



BEO-IrlNIUG 



tittek 1st., 1919, 



PART VII. 



POLICY OF B'ORCE 
JAPAN SENDING MORE TP.OOP3 TO 
KOREA TO SUPPRESS THE Hi DEP- 
ENDENCE MOVZaOi . 



Fl 

(Frou LeouL Pro3s(3emi Official organisation in Eoroa), April 8th, 1919) 

POLICS : OF FORCE. 

A gitation and hone government. 

Tokyo telegraphically reports that the investigation instituted by 
the home Government for some time concerning the agitation has come to an 
end, and the policy to be taken threat was definitely decided at the 
Cabinet Conference on Pirday oa the basis of the investigation. The y 
police decided upon is first of all completely to suppress tho di^tjjAonce 
Ld then determine the administrative policy to be pursue a by the govern- 
ment General. It has been unearthed through the luTOStlgatton made that 
the agitation is not a voluntary movement planned a^d starts d by Uoieane 
alone? by one evidently instigated by certain elements. The fact has led 
the Government to the taking of stringent measures to meet the situation 
and there are reasons to be-lieve that order has already been received by 
the Government General to that effect. 

Seoul Tress, April 8th, 1919 

JAPANESE AND BRITISH METHODS. 

With reference to our article published several days ago in which we 
stated that the British authorities in Egypt were pursuing a policy similar 
to that pursued by the Japanese authorities in Korea, and Irishman asks 
us if we "can produce evidence recording that any Egyptian has died as a 
result of eighteen bayonet wounds received during the dietrubances, or is 
a single Egyptaia child has had ite brains dashed out by the butt-end of 
a British rifle?" In answer to this query all we can say is that we have 
no Japanese missionaries living in Egypt, who will write home ho^ Egyptian 
ii-itators are killed. All we can know of the disturbance in Egypt is th- 
roushfc the meargre press telegrams despatched by Router, which is known 
to beTa British news agency. How can we produce any evidence as demanded 
by our correspondent? T/e do not believe in the least that the British 
authorities have been pursuing any German methods in Egypt, but had Egy- 
ptian agitators and their sympathizers any chance of informing the world 
of what has been happening in their country, we imagine that they suppres- 
sion of the disturbances. Hone can that in isolated cases acts of cruelty 
have not been committed by the Iritish soldiers la "gypt, as was undoubted- 
ly the case with some Japanese police and gendarmes in Korea, The . diff- 
erence between caseb in Egypt and Korea, it seems to us, is that m the 
former there are no prejudiced people to cry down the authorities, while 
la the latter there are not a few who sec; things throuji colored glasses. 
Only recently a Japanese professor came back froa India, whence he was 
deported on suspicion that he was a friend of Indian malcontents. We can 
well imagine that if some Japanese 3udohist misi-ionaneu lived xn Egypt 
and showed any sympathy with Egyptian agitators thsy woulu oe as promptly 
depo rted. 

Our correspondent writes further: 

"Bcreover it would be interesting the know if the British authorities 
in EKypt have allowed British Firemen to parade the town at night armed 
with Ion- staves, having a strong iron hooi. at one end, with which to dig 
holes in the heads and bodies of t^yptiaa agitators. There is ample proofl 
of these things having taken place in Koroa. There is a great deal of dif- 
ference between a stern policy and a policy and a policy of calculated 
brutality, the Western Allies had followed the former, the Huns the Latter. 
What will be the world's verdict on the policy pursued by Japan m this 

In i-egard to the aatter of Japauet-e fireuan being alio- ed to parade 
the streets at ni^ht, it may be explained that, due to frequent cases of 
indondiarisj taking place, Japanese civilians, lu places where .he police 
force is insufficient, have been obliged to eaploy then to guard their 



houses 



wight be set ?o tuel^ouses JT&.E 1 !* £md pass ! ve even thou S h fi ™ 
ren be assaulted it uSSJS^U&£S»!l ^ their WOmon and ohild - 
pursuing in Korea a "Poli^ S , ? J he . ^P 8 * 60 * authorities of 
Have befn SLepti^oMeB o^i^2- ,) T? llty • ,, 2" MtUO I there 

same people friendl? dienosed . L t® 00 ' bu 5 W9 trust tilat ' a11 the 
pot say that the JapJ^fhave olef aVt^f ^t^^ tro8d viewe wil1 
them afraid of the world' evlrdict? ^ K ° 8 111 way to 1113116 

(From Shanghai Gazette, April Uttt, 1919) 



TdL '1B0U31E lil LGYPT ADD KOKEA; 



The Eastern news Aaencv (h MM , 10 i , ^f" 3 ' April 8t h,1919 

revolts throughout ?he wfr aS -ucctl^nf^ ?? deaTOur ^ to cause 
creating riots in Cairo and -'v.: 8dei on more than one occasion in 
was the recent rothrtak " IT ° f E ^ pt ' in co-operation- as 

led by German ofncerZ Bedouxns of Western Behera who were 

last Effort,' ?L U cML'"lint, P n? Ua ? a , \ alm06t lines with this 

Luxor and the eluan ViW °* Cairo, Alexandria, 

then also uesd wi th succe" - a ain^ t *hf B ? H ?* Cars 811(1 «*o»Uw8, were 
force was needed to S^Ft^SS^t^uSo?^ a lar£e 

secured active assistance or Lraa hv !n ,1 ( The movement then 

now that the 3edouin<3 h P f™« 7 trou ,all.. Bedouins, but we learn 

British authorities! ra$ Because ati&i8 «^ the 

lesson to Japanese statesmen in Eo^ LI ^ 0187 finish an object 
ministration means. Korea— they have aeen what British Ad- 

ffcn^r^viL^eet'rJed ^ e /mbs and Bedouins on the Astern 
they were gSR S« Sll uuoer "e^rul^ S eMnrti °\*y the Turks 
clamouring for a continuance^* ?hat rule 71 * B ' Md tney are t0 - da y 

theifou! Scalar !U!?S?2R2 tt t^V^ 1 ^ their la *^ e < 
or made tofwi that the L couStr\* „a"s b«^ ^ 1 a0t 1 beea faeavi ly **m* 
militarist m.ster, regard tTf/k^ Se^ll^^a! 1 * ' 

alie^errn^y'patf^r'efe^hi^ ^uLT* was 
if even a sinie^aL palm we're infured 7 Ihtiv^T^J ^^ giVen 
al'vays out-of-bounds to the troo^ -mri „„ ? and villages were 

isessfss^ ~ ----- sxTa^sfx 

it te"ow. to B^tht fi s??rU f or^r ^ ??* C0Ua * ry °^ « "ell as 

tag country like Turkey is fitalL int^'tf^ ^ a neighbour- 

revolt that have neve/beeYuS ed^ oT S MSSftJ^* ° f 



y P3 

T — g 1 "!; *^arrrT'" t T"*""" i intelligent people of Egypt, 

"fifc^etaEa to a nan for Jritish rule. It ia only the poorest and moat 
Ignorant classes ' ■v/ho have been dratm iKfcta into this last outbreak by 
leaders paid by a beaten enemy. 

Can the same be said for the situation in Korea? Do the intelligent 
classes admit that Japanese rule is fair and just? Have, the Koreans 
been shovm that thoir interests are the interests of Japan? In short 
does the Japanese regime more nearly retemble Turkish rule or British 
rule ? Perhaps tho Lastorn Kelts Agenoy is in a position to aayj 

(j?rom China Press ,9th, April, 1.919) 

"JAPAH IS SiiHDISG TROOPS TO KORIin TO i'JUEjjL REVOLT " 
(Keutor'e pacific 3ervioe) 

Tokyo, April ,8, The V/ar Office a,*aounces that in view of the in- 
creasingly violent and dangerous character of the disturbances in Korea, 
now extending over practically the whole of the peninsula and affording 
facilities for the propaganda of Bolshevikized Chosenese, six addition- 
al battalions of troops have been despatched to Korea, in addition to 
400 gendarmes, for the efficient protection of the people in general. 

(Prom Shanghai Gazette, April 12, 1919) 

"KOiiEAfls ass* bolshevik muzssca* 

To the Editor, Shanghai Gazette. 

Sir:- An oppressor stoops to any sort of mean lies and calumnies to 
injure the name of the oppressed. A typical illustration of this is 
found in the Japanese statement that v;e, the Koreans, are Bolsheviki 
or have been under their influence. 1 e beg to make it known through 
your esteemed journal that we have nothing whatsoever to do with the 
Bolsheviki movement. We are convinced that the .lolsheviki program is 
founded on fundamental mistakes and can never bring amelioration to 
society. 

We are Koreans, pure and simple, and having been joaded to the 
extreme by the soul destroyins and Inhuman Japanese domination, wnich 
has reduced us to such a deplorable pass, we must claim our independence 
at this moment when the destinies of the world's oppressed nationalities 
are being considered by the civilised nations like Great .jritain and 
America. All Asia is anxiously waiting to sec- whether our just claims 
will be recognised by the Big Pour, for tho nope- of the whole of Asia 
are centered in the 3ig Four. v ;e hope that justice will not be denied 
to down trodden Lorea. 

Yours etc., KOREAIl 

(Prom Shanghai Times, April 13, 1919) 

•THE 8ISIITG lU KOBiia." 
Conditions more grave. 

A message from Korea, dated April 7, saya that conditions in Korea 
are more serious than has been stated in the newspapers. The Japanese 
are be^innin-- to realise that thoir subordinate officials have misled 
them and that the situation la much worse than represented. They 
are finding out that the movement is not led by a few ignorant people 



P4 

but 'by the most intelligent classes in Korea. Some K»reaa Peers have 
Ruined the movement, giving up their titles. All classes seem to be 
more united than ever in the effort. 

The Japanese, however, still seen to think that the movement can 
be put down by force, but their severe measures are bringing them no mo- 
re success than they did at the beginning of the movement. 

Two .American missionaries have left for Tokyo to inform the American 
Ambassador of the real conditions in Korea, which are now affecting 
American citizens. Heuter. 

(JProu Shanghai Gazette, April 19, 1919) 

"DIUSTIC JAPANESE: wEASttaES AGAINST 
KOREANS" 

It is reported that Japan has decided to close Korea to the Koreans. 
A new law, which came into effect on the 15th inst. requires all 
Koreans to have special Japanese certificates for leaving or entering 

Korea. 

This rill be a severe blow to the Koreans as hereafter tho difficulty 
of pending information and reports out of Korea will be- greatly increased. 

vt is stated that if the new law is intended to smother the Indepen- 
dence movement by isolating the Koreans in Lorea and those who are work- 
ing outside of it, it is doomed to failure for the simple reason that 
the Koreans inside Korea are acting on their own initiative. 

Another new Japanese law which came into force on tho same day in 
Korea is that all Koreans arrested for deuonet rating for Independence 
wilj be liable to punishment for ten years or less .penal servitude. 
The severity of the law is unprecedented as all the Korean demonstrators 
ere unarmed and have so far never fern resorted to violence or even disord- 
er. 

(From Shanghai Gazette, April 19th, 1919) 

"HISHSESIVS iCASUBBS AGAINST EOBEAHS" 

Korean Demonstrators Punished; Special Law Passed; Bxichido 
Troops Arrive from Japan; Missionaries' Houses Searched. 

Peking, April 17th 
The special law which came into force in Korea on the loth requires 
every Korean to have a Japanese certificate when leavin or entering 
Korea and any demonstrator after that date will be liable te 10 years 
penal xrkixfei servitude. — Heuter. 

>ekin , April 16th 
a message from Seoul, dated April 12, states that the "Seoul Press, M 
a Japanese semi-official organ, publishes General Kasegawa's warning 
to the Korean people, issued on April 10th. 

General Hasegawa says, in part, "I regret the agifcation that broke 
out last month and that the lives of lawabiding people arc threaten- 
ed. I have already issued two instructions to enlighten the people. Uever- 
theloss, th« agitation has not come to an end but has recently gained 
strength," ...... .?The maintain peace by military force is of course 

contrary to my dfcsire, but it is now absolutely necessary." "Drastic 

measures will hereafter be taken against such people as assemble in large 
bodies and act in a disorderly manner. It is hoped that the people will 



P5 

refrain and not joim the rioters. If they do so, unlocked for punish- 
ment will surely he theirs. They should advise one another to avoid 
action tending to bring them within the grip of the Lav/." 

On the sane day as the above proclamation was issued, the first 
detaohments of the fresh Japanese troopsi despatched from Japan arrived 
at Fusan. 

Peking, ^pril 16. 

A despatch published by tho Seoul press on April 12 from Tyeng Yang 
states that of 56 Korean students and others who were tried in the 
local ocdcJE oourt for participating in the demonstrations 39 were senten- 
ced to imprisonment for terms renging from six months to t?ro years, with 
hard labour, 15 \7ere sentenced to be beaten with 90 blows and two were 
acquitted. "All have appealed except those punished with the blows", 
adds the despatch. 

On April S the houses of the Rev. II. ZD. 31air and the Sev. II. H. 
Hruen at Taiku were searched by Japanese police and soldiers. 



KOREAN INDEPENDENCE OUTBREAK 
BEGINNING 
MARCH let., 1919. 



PART VIII. 
HO' THE KOHEAN SHOPS TORE RE-OPENED. 



Tl 



HOVj THE KOREAN SHOPS ViEHE BE-OPEHED 
Seoul, Korea, April 29/19 

(Extract from Seoul Press, April, 2nd. 1919) 

"Yesterday at 10 A. K. Governor Matsunaga summoned over 40 repre- 
sentative Korean Merchants in Seoul and advised them to re-open 
feheir shops immediately promising them the protection from intimi- 
dation by agitators. At the same time the Governor issued a warn- 
ing to Korean Shop-keepers urging them to resume business. In con- 
sequence Korean shops in Chongno and other principal streets were 
seen re-opened at noon." 

So simply done apparently, just a sensible talk and a threaten- 
ing warning and most of the shops opened. But this is only one 
half of the story, and the most uninteresting half at that. The 
shop-keepers accounts make very different reading. 

Everyone who has followed the movement in Korea has been 
struck by the action of the merchants both large and small in 
closing their stores and refusing to do business since a little 
time after the start of the independence movement. A few shops 
have remained open although, but the majority of them closed 
fiheir doors on or about March 5th, and although much pressure was 
brought to bear on them by the officials, they all remain closed 
until they were forced upon a month later at the point of the 
bayonet . This was the silent manner in which the business men 
Called "Mansei" . The Japanese reports on the subject stated 
that the shops remained closed on account of the fear of the 
owners of assault and damage to their premises by the agitators. 
It may be that a few of them were influenced in this manner, but 
they were few - very few. The vast majority of them closed 
because they were in deep sympathy with the independence move- 
ment and in this manner made a silent protest against the ruth- 
lessness of the Japanese. 

Early last month when the stores first closed the Mayor 
called a meeting of the merchants and remonstrated with them for 
their foolish action. This had no effect and they unanimously 
decided to remain closed. They would open on one condition. 
They told the authorities "That when they let all their brothers and 
sisters out of prison they would re-open their shops." 
They said, "They are suffering for us and it is impossible for 
to buy and sell while they are suffering torture and cruelty." 

The report that the shop-keepers were afraid to remain open 
on account of their fear of Korean agitators can be disproved in many 
ways. (1) The Korean shopkeepers by remaining closed hoped 
to obtain the release of their imprisoned brethern. (2) That 
those stores which remained opened were not molested except in 
a few instances. (3) That after the stores were opened by the Pol- 
ice in the main streets none of the agitators made any assault on 
them although in the smaller streets hundred of the smaller shops 
remained closed. The shop-keepers knew that they would receive 
every police protection if they opened up, yet large numbers of them 
went to prison rather than open their doors. When one of 
the police was asked if the Koreans wished to open their shops 
he answered No I They explained they were only carry out orders, 
for the closing of the shops was interfering with business 
and that in the end it would cause suffering to the poor peoples. 
The fact of the matter was the Japanese viere beginning 
to suffer heavily through the Korean refusing to do business 
and it was realized that if they remained closed much longer 
there would be a crisis in Japanese business circles. 



T2 



On April lot an order was issued 'by the authorities that all shops 
had to be opened. Several hundred Korean business men were 
asked to appear at the police bureau. But of the hundreds in- 
vited only forty appeared at the bureau, and even some of these 
were escorted by police from their shops to the station. In 
this way an audience was secured for an address by the Chief 
of police and the Governor. The burden of the adress was 
that their sin in closing their shops would in this instance be 
forgiven, but it must never be repeated again. They were told 
that in the event of their remaining closed that certain severe 
penalties would be inflicted. Before leaving they were all 
compelled to place their seal to a statement whereby they prom- 
ised to open their shops immediately. They were then escort- 
ed to their shops by either police or detectives. 

I have interviewed many of the shop-keepers. They state 
that the only reason that their shops are opened is because 
armed Japanese soldiers forced them to do so. On April 
1st. as I was passing down one of the streets I saw Japanese 
soldiers forcing open the shutters of one of the shops with 
his bayonet, and at other times I saw a number of them being 
taken to the police station because they had refused to com- 
ply with the orders of the police. In many shops I saw the 
soldiers sitting on stools holding their loaded rifles in their 
hands. In certain districts, as fast as the police would open 
one shop the one they had previously opened would close again. 
This resulted in soldiers being places at certain intervals 
along the main streets, and after a month, the soldiers are 
still there. The Koreans are not trying to do business. 
They sit in their shops and gaze listly at the crowd pass- 
ing by. They make no attempt to sell anything, and 
unless a thing is exposed they will tell you that they have 
not the article you have inquired fori I know of certain in- 
stances of foreigners who can speak Korean going into a shop 
to purchase certain articles, being told by the Koreans that 
they did not wish to do any business in front of the Japanese 
soldier who was standing outside the door, but that they would 
bring to their house later on in the day. Apparently they 
were taking such measures to see that the Koreans got what they 
wanted, but as for doing business with the Japanese they would 
not do so unless they were absolutely compelled to do so. 

All the Police have forced the Koreans to open 
their doors, ordinary business is a long way from being normal 
and the passive resistance that 1^ie Koreans are putting up con- 
cerning the purchase and sale of certain goods is consider- 
ably incommoding the Japanese business man, and causing him con- 
siderable loss. It is a case of leading a horse to water and 
deing unable to make him drink. The feeling against the Japanese 
is stronger than ever. The military force that is 
being used, and the brutal police methods is hardening the heart 
of Korean and making him more reckless. No attempt is being 
made to appeal to his softer side. Militarism is the only 
thing known in Korea, and it is a militarism so closely akin to 
that of Germany, that one is astounded at the similarity. The 
Civil authorities have practically nothing to say. Japan is 
making a blunder, that will cost her dear in the future; she 



T3 

is planting the seed of hatred in the hearts of the younger gen- 
eration of the Koreans that will grow is intensity and "be trans- 
mitted from father to son. The name of Japan will not only 
be hated "but despised. The brutal attacks on the aged and the 
young, the treatment of women will in the nature of the stories 
of the Black Douglas of Scotland, "be used by Korean mothers 
to frighten their children when they misbehave. 

Acts have been committed "by the soldiers of Japan in Korea 
that will "bring them into disrepute with the whole of the civ- 
ilized world. It will be seen that the old Sumaria spirit 
is now a thing of the past, and if men of the old fighting clans 
of Japan were to come to life today and see the soldiers of 
their blood ruthlessly stabbing, bayonetting and shooting women 
and children, of clubbing men to death after they had been 
wounded, they would hide their heads in shame. Apparently the 
old spirit had died out, and in its place is a brutality and 
barbarism which vents itself on helpless women and children or de- 
fenceless men. Armed they attack the unarmed, and the very 
fact that, they know that there is very little chance of their bein, 
hurt, encourages them to excesses that disgrace the uniforms they 
wear. 



5^. 



KOREAN INDEPENDENCE OUTBREAK 



BEGINNING 



MARCH 1st., 1919. 



PART IX. 

THE TERRIBLE OUTRAGES AND ATROCITIES 
OF THE BAR3ARI0U3 TROOPS OF HIS MAJESTY'S 
GOVERNMENT OF JAPAH OCCURRED IN SU¥OH AND 
ITS NEIGHBOURING .VILLAGES . THEIR BLOOD 
THIRSTY ACTS HILL NEVER BE FORGOTTEN BY 
THE KOREANS. 



SI 



THE ATROCITIES IN SUWEN,AM NEIGH- 
BOURING VILLAGES 

When the atrocities in Suwen and the neighbo uring district imq 
brought to the ndtice of the local authorities, the Governor 
gave assurances -that nothing of such a nature would occur 
again. In this particular Instance the authorities had no op- 
portunity of denying that the wholesale murder of a number of 
Korean who had been invited to attend a lecture in a church, 
and the murder of other Koreansin other districts, and the burn- 
ing of villages had taken place. Too many foreigners had 
visifebd the scones of these "brutal events, and to make matters 
more interesting a number of those who visited those places were 
officials or foreign governments. Photographs were taken and 
clear evidence was obtained. The Japanese authorities under such 
conditions were forced to admit that subordinate military of- 
ficials had exceeded their duty and had committed acts which 
could only be denounced by the higher officials themselves. 

Reports have been circulated that the men rosposible for 
these outrages would be "brought to hook for taking the law into 
their own hands. Up to the present, however nothing has been 
heard of their being put on trial, neither has anything definite 
been given out concerning the punishment they would receive if 
they were found guilty. 

The charges which must be brought against them are of such 
a serious nature that they could only be tried by the highest 
court, Military if they were soldiers, and the Chief Court of 
Justice should any of them he civilians. The charge against them 
would be murder, and if the Japanese authorities are sincere in 
their desire to punish these men for the brutalities they have 
committed and wish to prove to the world that they will not toler- 
ate acts of this discription, the trial should be a public one 
and the sentences pronounced in open court. It is now no time 
for the authorities in Korea to take half measures.- Either 
tho government is willing to condone such acts or it is not. 
Either the Government intends to allow soldiers of low rank to 
murder Koreans adlibm or it- will afford the Koreans that pro- 
tection of life which they are entitled to by the laws which 
Japan has set up in this country. Apparently the civil author- 
ities are unable to act in the matter, the Government being a 

tary one. That "being the case the Governor General himself 
is there fore responsible that these men are "brought to trial 

It is his duty to see that they are punished to the full 
t ;.cixt of the law if they are proven guilty. The question is 
dtr.;*e the authorities at the present moment punish these military 
murderers of innocent and unarmed Koreans? In certain quarters it 
is said that they are not, and the only manner by which the 
G-o-e:,-nor General can disprove this report is by bringing 
these men to trial. It is somewhat puazling to those who 
believe that the strictest discipline is maintained in the Japan- 
ese army, that these murders should have taken place without the 
authorization of some military official of rank! Sergeants and 
men below that rank are not in the hahit of committing such of- 
fences unless they feel sure that they have the support and pro- 
tection of those above them. On the other hand, if these men of 
low rank can take this responsiblity upon their shoulders with- 
out fear of punishment it is proof conclusive that the discipl- 
ine in the Japanese army is non existent* 



S2 

The Governor General after receiving a delegation of mission* 
aries who had been to the districts where the murders had 
taken place is said to have admitted the truth of their report 
and at the same time denounced the harsh measures used. He fur- 
ther stated that appropriate punishment had been motod out to 
those responsible for the burning and murdering. What that pun- 
ishment was is not known. He also stated that 

strict instructions had been sent throughout the country forbid- 
ding further acts of this kind. 

Despite this assurance of the Governmr General authentic re- 
ports have reached me from Northern Korean stating that churches 
some little distance from Pyongyang have been burnt to the 
ground and that the Koreans who have attempted to p\jt the fire 
out have been beaten into insibility, and in ofc&er cases treated 
in a worse manner, by the Boldiers who set fire ti the buil-ding.^ 

Other cruelties are also reported and the greater part of 
Northern Korea is in a state of terror. About five or six 
churches have already be burnt down, and fears are entertained 
that the few remaining will suffer the same fate . My informa- 
tion is reliable, and a number of these churches have been 
raised to the ground since the governor General made the above 
statement. Under these ■ conditions the Governor General's assur- 
ances do not count for much, otherwise the instructions which 
he states have been despatched "all over Korea" are being dis- 
regarded. It is almost impossible to believe that such a thing 
could happen, but as the churches are still being burnt down 
and the people murdered it shows that the notice is not being 
taken of the Governor General's instructions which the 
foreigners expected. The Japanese papers and othor methods of 
propaganda under government control are doing their best to 
minimize the situation, but to those who are closely following 
the trend of event in Korea it is plain that the large mili- 
tary force which has been brought into the country to put 
down an unarmed people is merely terrorising the people into sub- 
mission for the time being. The Koreans are daily growing more 
determined to fight for their liberty and gathering hatred in 
their hearts against their Japanese oppressors. They are allow- 
ed no freedom of speech, they are not allowed to publish a paper 
and during some of the police examinations they have been ac- 
oused of harbouring "wicked r thoughts" . Despite the Governor Gen- 
eral ' s statement that they would not be any more harshly dealt 
with, they are being driven to desperation by the ruthless me- 
thods of the Japanese gendarmes in the interior. In the neighbour- 
hood of Seoul it is bad enough, although there are foreigners who 
are at hand to chroniilo events, or at least to chronicle some of 
them, but even in that city cruelties are the order of the day 
by the lucal police. While I was in hospital the police came in 
and demanded bhat a number of wounded men be handed over to them. 
Some of the men whose custody were demanded were in such a con- 
dition that th< syr/no* could not be moved, and it was only owing to the 
fact that he hospital authorities pointed out that to remove 
them would meor. death chat a number of them were allowed to re- 
main. Throe, however were taken away, and according to reports 
that have reached me, one of them was beaten so badly in the 
police station, despite his wounded condition that he died. 
If this happening in Seoul one can imagine what is happening 



S3 

in the interior where there are no foreigners to chronicle what 
is happening. The Japanese are now becoming so scarod at tho 
knowledge that the foreigners are gaining of their cruelties 
that they are trying to prevent the Koroans from entering mis- 
sionary hospitals. They do not want the missionaries to know 
how they bayonet, shoot, or beat the Koreans. But they have 
thought of this too late, for while in future they may pre- 
vent the Koreans from receiving foreign treatment, they cannot 
refrute the evidence of the past. 

It is a black and damning picture that continually faces 
the Japanese they themselves realize at the present moment and 
for the sake of appearing in front of the civilized world with 
clean hands, now that they are trying to secure mandatory powers 
over new territories, they are willing to do anything. 
It is impossible for the Japanese to understand that it is impos- 
sible for them to mislead the world all the time. Truth will 
come out, and the methods they have followed in Korea shows that 
they are not fit to be trusted with the care of sther nations. 

In Korea they have abused the trust that has been placed in 
them. On their own showingg. they fought for the independence 
Of Korea when they came in conflict with the Russians, but that 
has proved mere empty talk. Prom the time that they murdered 
tho queen and then burnt her history has shown that the inter- 
est of the Korean people has not been considered when it came in 
conflict with Japanese interests. How easily the Japanese could, 
have handled this situation and made the Koreans their 
friends is realized by everyone except the Japanese themsel- 
ves. It is their utter lack of understanding of the situation that 
h£s brought about the present state of affairs. They are and 
have been trying tc make the Koreans their slaves, they do not 
want them to know anything about their won history, because they 
know that it will diminish Japanese prestige. The Japanese do 
not want tso have to admit that they owe much to this country, 
concerning their religion, art, written language and laws. 

They are indeed trying to denationalize them. They will not 
allow them to read up to date literature, including foreign 
newspapers. It is the object of the present regime to prevent the 
Korean from becoming too conversant with world affairs and 
the history of his own people. 

As far as the Japanese are concerned the Korean is not 
thing tnore or less that a slave, and as such they intend to 
treat him. But the Korean is beginning to realize that he has 
certain rights and that he is entitled to have a say as to how 
and by whom he shall be governed. At the moment they both hate 
0ach other with a hatred that it is impossible to describe. The 
Japanese considers that the Korean is beneath contemptk while the 
Korean is of theay opinion that it is impossible to trust the Japan- 
ese, as up to the present he has met with nothing but falsehood 
and misrepresentation, as far aa the Koreans are concerned the 
Japanese Government may send in all the soldiers she possesses, 
and while they may be thoir brutal treatment force them to 
submission for the time being, the hatred will still exist. Why 
the Japanese to not rry to come to a reasonable understand is be- 
yond the imagination of the ordinary foreigner. 

Continued cruelty will only increase the hatred of the Koreans 
iftor the Japanese and it is to be hoped that the Bovernor Gen- 
eral will take such steps as to make his recent statement good. 



S4 



THE 1USSACBE 9F CHAI Alfli-NI, SOTTON . 
Seoul, Korea, April. 25th., 1919. 

Ever since the Declaration of Independence by the Korean 
peepte on March 1st. 1919, the locai government has used methods 
of extreme severity and cruelty in dealing with the Nationalists 
the acts of the folios and Soldiers "became progressively more se- 
vere and cruel and culminated in the massacre of Chai Amm-Hi men- 
tioned in this report. These methoda which consist of threaten- 
ing, arresting, snooting, bayoneting, torturing, and according to 
the following report burning alive, have, it would appear been 
most successful from the government's point of view, as quiet 
and order have apparently been restored. Under such conditions. ^MansoA*-' 
may not be shouted for fifty years, but "Banzai" will 
never again be heard, except, perhaps at 3eme state function 
when the lips but not the heart, may make the empty sound. The 
methods adopted in Korea has been to terrorise the people, and 
this has been achieved as completely by the Japanese police and 
soldiery in Korea as it was by the Germans in Belgium. Ia both 
cases the result has been the same, a surface calm covering a violent 
tempest that almost destroys body and soul of the one who 
has thus to restrain it. The following report of the massacre 
it a report by one who visited the place in question. It 
is supported by the report of a large number of foreigners, not 
all of whom were missionaries by any means who visited the 
scene the day following the visit of the gentleman who give 
me the following xtatnaaxxxgxxktoxgtra^mnaL^^ stexy. 
One ef the non-missionary members of the above mentioned party told me 
on his ruin that when he was on the scene, the stench of burning human 
flesh was sickening to his nostrils. I may here mention that a rrjort 
was made by responsible foreigners to the authorities in Seoul and that 
it was impossible for any evidence to be brought forward to disprove 
their statement. It can therefore be taken that the following state- 
ment is a fairly accurate summing up of the whole horrible bus-» 
iness, although it may vary in certain minor details to the re- 
port made to the government on account of my informant being on 
the ground a day ahead of the above mentioned partym who made 
the Journey in motor cars. The following is the statement as made 
to me in an interview: 

THE MASSACHE OF CHAI - AMU - NI, SDWON . 

On thursday, April 17th. news was brought to Seeul by a certain 
foreigner that a moet terrible tragedy had occurred in a small vil- 
lage some fifty Li (17 miles) south of Suwon. The* story was that 
a number of Christians had been shut up in a church, then fired upon 
by the soldiers and then when all of them were either wounded 
or dead the church was 3et on fire, in this way ensuring their com- 
plete destruction. Such a story seemed almost too terrible to be 
true and being of such a serious nature I determined to 
verify it by a personal visit: on the following day I toek train 
to Suwon and from there cycled to within a few miles of the villa- 
ge, and knowing the strennaus objections that would be made to 
my visit, I made a detour of several miles over a mountain pass, to 
avoid the police and gendaim station which I knew was near the vil- 
lage, and by this means was able to reach the stricken district. 

Before entering the village I questioned many people as to 
the reported burning of villages, but none had any accurate in- 
formation, and all were very much afraid to speak about the affair. 
I finally met a boy who lived in the village Tvhore the massacre 
had occurred, but he absolutely to tell me anything. He protested 



S5 

his ignorance - terrorism was bearing its fruit - the people were 
almost paralysed with fear. 

Making a sharp turn in the road I came suddenly into the vil- 
lage and to my surprise found a number of government officials, 
military and civil, holding an investiga-tion.. After a conversa- 
tion with some of these officials I was allowed to further look 
over the village and take some photographs. From Koreans I could 
ge« practically no information, they appeared to be dazed and stu- 
pified, especially the women, while the younger men pretended 
ignorance of any details. 

THE VILLAGE. 

The appearance of the village was one of absolute desolation, 
about eight houses remained, the rest (31) with the Church had 
all been burned to the ground. All that remained were the stone 
jars of pickle and other edibles, these stood in perfect order 
among the ruins. The people were scattered about sitting on 
mats, or straw; some had already improvised little shelters on the 
adjoining hill-side,- where they sat in silence looking down in be- 
wilderment at the remains of their happy homes. They seemed be- 
reft of speech, they were probably trying to fathom why this ter- 
rble judgment should overtake them, and why they should sudden- 
ly become widows and their children orphans. There they sat help- 
less and forlorne entirely overcome by the calamity that had 
overtaken them. 

TEE STORY OP THE MASSACRE. 
Before long the Government party left the village, and when the 
officer was well out of sight the tongues of some of these poor 
frightened people loosened and they revealed to me the story of 
the outrage . The story was follows : - 

On Thursday, April 15, early in the afternoon some soldiers had 
entered the village and given orders that all the adult male Christians 
and members of the Chundokyo. (Heavenly Way 'Society) 
were to assemble in the Church as a lecture was to be given them. 
In all some twenty-three men went to the church as ordered and sat 
down wondering what was to happen. They" soon found out the 
nature of the plot as the soldiers immediately surrounded the 
church and fired into it through the paper windows. TVhen most of them 
had been either killed or wounded, the Japanese soldiers. , 
cold-bloodedly set fire to the thatch and wooden building which 
readily blazed. Some tried to make their escape by rushing out, 
but they were immediately bayonetted or shot-. Six bodies were 
found outside the church, these having tried in vain to escape. 
Two women whose husbands had been ordered to the Church 
being alarmed at the sound of firing went to see what was hap- 
pening to their husbands, and tried to get through the soldiers to 
the church. Both were brutally murdered. One was a young woman of 
nineteen, she was bayonetted to death, the other a woman of over 
forty was shot. Both were Christians. The soldiers then set the 
village on fire and left. This briefly in the story of the Massacre 
of Chai Amm-Ki. For cold blooded brutality it will reguire a 
lot of beating, and long will it remain a stqin on the Japanese 
army and Japanese military methods in this country will made 
plain to the world. The Blame for this cannot be placed on the 
shoulders of the ignorant and boorish Japanese soldiers, officials 
higher up were cognizant of it 1£ not directly party to the plot. 
It is impossible that the strict discipline which prevails in the 
Japanese army, would of any private soldier or sergeant taking 



36 

ouch responsibility upon hie shoulders. 

Some of the foreigners who were at the village the day after 
the burning and photographed one of the dead burnt bodies, 
said that the smell of burning human flesh was frightful . Talcing 
all the above into consideration there is no wonder that all the 
people were paralysed with fear. The story was told me by 
several of the villagers, all their stories were substantially the 
same. The poor people begged me to give them protection, they 
informed me that they were living in constant dread of fur- 
ther atrocities. They did not know when they were likely to have 
other visits from the police and soldiery, and that the next time 
they might he exterminated. One young widow who had previously 
passed through a mission school, oame up and took hold of my 
hands and told me in tears how her husband had been killed. She 
was followed by woman after woman all anxious to relieve them- 
selves by telling me their trouble. Nearly all of them wondored 
when the missionaries would come again, yet they all seemed 
afraid if they did come it would make matters worse . Their con- 
dition was pitiful. My presence, however, seomed to have broken to 
a certain extent the spell that had been cast over them. They be- 
gan to realize more doenly what had befallen them, and a3 they 
did so the sound of the wailing of the widows and orphans 
could be heard across the little valley. I left them after trying 
to comfort them, and returned in the evening. As soon as I arrived 
a youth came up to me. He had escaped, but he told me that 
both his father and mother had been murdered. His mother he said 
had become alarmed at the firing and had gone to the church to 
try and ascertain if she could not render her husband assistance, 
she was killed as stated above . Heart rending sights were to be 
seen on every hand: in one place was a little mite of a girl pre- 
paring the evening meal of herbs for hor mot tier who was prostrated 
by grief. She was making it in a broken earthernware vessel placed 
on some stones with lighted straw underneath. I left a little 
orphan baby wrapped up in some rags on a mat of straw. 

WL&.T the villagers said 

I tried to find out from the villagers if they knew of any par- 
ticular reason why they should be singled out for such cruel 
treatment. They told me that they had not shouted for indepen- 
dence in the village, but on the market day with many others they 
had like all Korea shouted for liberty. They knew of no reason why 
they had been so punished, unless it was because there, were 
many Christians living there". Some thought that it was because 
a gendarme had been killed and the gendarmerie station burnt down, 
but they had not committed this act, it having happened many miles 
away, otherwise they could give no reasonable explanation for the 
action of the Japanese soldiers. 

WHAT THE JAPANESE POLICEfr A N SAIL , 
In this I must be careful as the policeman v.as a Japanese and his 
statements had to be interpreted. He said that the fire was the 
result of Korean carelessness, that is it started in one of the 
houses and spread. As to the s hc3bi?R of the cer. end women 
he said that they were very had p eople :i_ that vi! ir. ge ancPthat 
as they refused to be arrested V- 3 ; *L a * to be she t 'A -o was the 

f ist of his statement , la imp osslols rte giy e>- an y reason 
or so dastardly a crime, the soldiers ard police aTbne know the 
reason for their bloody act . I was informed that a very high offic- 
ial casually remarked that a gendarme had been killed, this was 



S7 



this in his opinion apparently was sufficient reason for such 
an act to toe committed. It should he noted that the Gendarme was 
only killed after had shot on a crowd of defenceless Koreans 
some of whom he killed and wounded. 

Personally I am of the opinion that two things influenced 
those responsible for the crime (1) the killin? oJ£ the Gendarme 
in the village some distance away, (2) the intense hatred of the 
Christians . 

~ Such is the story as told. That it reflects great 
descredit on those responsible for the "behaviour of the soldiers 
in Korea there is no gainsaying. The Governor General is said to 
have discountenanced the actions of this hody of men, hut 
greater confidence would he placed in his utterances on the sub- 
ject if he were to "bring all those connected with the affair 
up for trial, and then shoot those found responsible for great 
an outrage. It would not only show that he was willing to pun- 
ish those who overstepped their military powero, hut it would prove 
that he was willing to give justice tt the Koreans, hut lit 
would seem that a Japanese soldier in Korea can do no wrong. 



36 

Report of 

THE SU-CHON ATOROCITISS Seoul, April, 25,1919 

The following is an interview of a foreigner who visitod Su- 
Chon and carried out an investigation of the 'barbarous acts 
that had heen committed there. A number of other missionaries and 
foreign officials visited the scene the following day, and their 
statements bear out the following account. It may here be mention- 
ed, that the authorities in Seoul were formally informed of what had 
been seen at this and other places by foreigners, and in such 
terms that the authorities wore not in a position to deny the state- 
ments placed before them. It may also be mc.rtior.ed that che govern- 
ment also sent a committee of invest igat ior , ar.u as a result the 
Government decided to send supplies cf good n.t.L hc.\c promised to 
rebuild the houses that were burned acim. This :>r itself is an 
admission that a wrong has been committed, it is ^?.so stated 
on good authority that when the Joveircr C-srersl vas ac- 
quainted with the facts, that he stated the! svih a thing 
would never be allowed to occur again, ihs building of houses, 
the handing out of food to the widows and orphens while good in 
its way, cannot recall to life thoee who were killed or re- 
pair the suffering that so many innocent people were made to 
suffer at the hands of a brutal soldiery. The fact that 30 
iiany foreigners went to the seene of this useless burning and 
murdering and killing has forced the government, which other- 
wise it would never have taken. They are fully aware that it is 
useless to deny that this acts of brutality did not take place; 
the evidence is too strong against them. The following is the 
result of the interview: - 

The Kamlet of Su-chon is beautifully situated in a pretty vall- 
ey some four or five miles from Chai Amn-ni where the previously 
reported massacre occurred. I arrived at the outskirts of the vll T 
lage at four o'clock in the afternoon of April 17th. and seeing 
a woman standing on tho top of a high bank which here flank a the 
road on the left side, I asked whether I had arrived at the vil- 
lage of Su-chon. She replied "yes" it lies at the bottom of the Hill. 
After a word or two more with regard to the village she asked me 
in a broioen voice, "are you a Christian?" On my replying in the 
affirmative, she rushed across the road and grasping my hands 
expressed her thankfulness. She told me that the village had 
been burnt, the church destroyed, and many of the people badly 
hurt. Sh6 begged me to come and look at the village. I told her 
that I had come there for that purpose and Ihtt I would enter 
the village ahead of her. Before I left she was joined by two 
boys whom I was informed were the sons of the pastor. All of 
them were -.Anxiously watching from the hill top the direc- 
tion in which a small company of Japanese soldiers were going, 
of whom they expressed great dread and the fear that they would 
rotujtn . 

THE VILLAGE 

It had been a pretty village, so prettily located, with such 
cottages, but the hand of the de3pciler had been there, and his 
finger prints black and brutal lay heavily ypon the landscape. The 
narrow streets were lined with ask heaps, out of forty-two cott- 
ages eight alone remained. Little attempt had been made to clear 
away the debris by the aurvivers for they had no sense of secur- 
ity of life and property, and the; apparently feared that any at- 
tempt to gather their things together would only bring fresh 



I 



S9 

disasters upon them. Seme few old women were sitting by their 
few ftelongtngs, their grief had overcome- them, and they were 
listless and indifferent, and I could not help^,th i Tiki rig that per- 
haps they were wishing that they had perished in the cruel, 
flames that had swept away their homes and robbed them of "all 
their earthly comfort. Thore were some little children pick- 
ing herbs in the fields - they must have something to eat, and 
all their stocks of rice and other food had been destroyed. The 
police and soldiers being absent the people flocked around me and 
seemed anxious to tell me of their misfortunes. They had recover—^ 
ed from the first* stiock, but were in constant fear lest the 
soldiers should come back again and destroy them in the same 
brutal way^ that they had destroyed their homes. 

THE STORY OF THE, CRIML OF APRIL 6th. 
Before daybreak, while all were sleeping, some soldiers entered 
the village and had gone from house to house ring the thatched 
roofs which quickly caught fire and destroyed the houses. The 
people rushed out and found the whole village boning Some tried 
to put the fire out, but were soon stopped by the soldiers who shot at 
them, stabbed them with their bayonets or beat thea Thoy 
were compelled to stand by and watch thei* village burfci to ashes. 
After completing this nefarious work, the soldiers left them to. 
their fate. I was informed that only one maix u£.t> k:.lle1 
but that many ware seriously injured. I inquirec rf the wind had 
spread the fire from house to house? The reply v.t,s- "«he village 
was on fire at several places at the same time. s_ci. that the 
soldiers carried matches and set fire to the tLatoh cf many houses. 

A survey of the village soon showed the impossibility of the 
fire spreading to all the houses, by natural mear.s, the space be- 
tween the houses being too great for that. The village was 
also in three Beet ions, a small valley and a hill making the na- 
tural division, yet all three divisions were more or less demol- 
ished. I asked to see the wounded and was taken to the inner • 
room of a house and there found a middle aged man in a most piti- 
ful condition. His left arm from the elbow down was swollen to 
twice its normal size; the sword cut at the elbow was full of pus 
which drenched the rags which had been used for dressing. The 
smell was sickening. The man was a Christian and told me that 
when the village was fired he had gone out and was immediately 
attacked by a soldier who cut him with his knife (most likely 
sword or bayonet) . He had had no medical attention and said he was 
feeling very ill. His respiration was about 26 and his pulse 120. 
It was plain that he was suffering a great deal and I told the 
people that he must be taken uanediately to hospital or he would 
die. After bathing the wound and pitting on a fresh dressing, I 
left the poor fellow with promise of further attention. Fortunate- 
ly the next day arrangements were made to take him to a govern- 
ment hospital. When the Local policeman say the wounded man in 
the house previous to his removal to hospital he insisted that the 
Japanese had not done it, but I pointed out that the evidence was 
too strong against them. To this he answered that the man was a 
very bad character and left it at ghat. As I was leaving the 
house an old man came hobbling toward me and told me he had been 
badly hurt. I asked him to show me his wounds. Boiling up his trous- 
ers he showed me 5 or 6 punctured wounds in his leg. I asked him 



S10 

how he had received such wounds and he replied that on the 
morning of the fire, a soldier had stabbed him with his bayonet 
when he rushed out of his burning house. He then showed ae his 
other leg which was a greenish yellow in many places, the result 
he said of another soldier clubbing him with the but end of 
his rifle. These men may have been "bad" men, but they looked 
harmless enough to me, and if theyhad been really had men the 
Japanese would have removed them from the village a3 they have 
removed all other men whom they considered at all dangerous. 

I went into another house and found two men in one room 
lying on the floor. On inquiry I wa3 told that they had been so 
badly beaten by the Japanese soldiers that they could not move. 
As I remember their story they had been led out of the village 
and beaten on the roadside with club. I saw their bodies. 
The bruising was indeed frightful and the men were in a 
pitiful condition. Ivvwas unable to learn any definite concerning 
the burning of the church - it may have caught fire accidentally 
or it may have been set on fire purposely, but they did not know. 
I told them that I would go and make arrangement concerning get- 
ting the wounded men to hospital, and for this reason I was un- 
able to listen to the many stories they wanted to tell me. They 
begged for protection, and kept on crying out "Oh, when would 
the soldiers go?" "When would people come and help them?" etc. 
etc. The whole village was terrified and were in constant dread 
that the soldiers would come back and start shooting or making 
arrests . 

I could not help wondering what dreadful crime 
these people had committed to be treated so brutally. They do not 
know themselves, it is true they called "Mansei" but all Korea 
had done that . It is true that a gendarme had been killed, but 
this had happened a considerable distance from this village and 
these people knew nothing about it, and the local village had been 
burnt down for that offence . I could find no real reason for 
this useless burning down of a village and making a number of 
people homeless. By such acts Japan is hardening the hearts of 
Koreans against her. Thejt people are now beginning to feel that 
the Japanese intend to kill them whether they are innocent of do- 
ing any wrong or not, and are arriving at the conclusion that 
if they have to die, they may as wwll do so striving for the liber- 
ty of their country. They have to die any way, so what is the good 
oft them trying to live with in the bounds of the Law- such as 
it is - when it is impossible for them to obtain Justice in any 
shape or form. 

BOTE The following day a number of missionaries visited the 
village, but on account of the presence of the police the people 
were unable to say anything. 



Sll 



THE MJRBSR AT WHJL SU HI. 

The following is another interview by one who has made a tour 
of the burned villages in districts not more than fifty miles 
from Seoul. 

How soon one unconsciously 13600016 callous and indifferent to 
the terrible sufferings of these around them when day by day the 
same pitiful sights are seen and the same mournful stories hoard. 
When one first hears of the beating and shooting of innocent 
people, the burning of peaceful homes and the massacre of men women 
and children and the suffering of the orphans, the blood turns 
cold and the eyes fill with tears at the sights that one meets 
with. But after a few days direct contact, the sensory nerwes 
seem to lose their sensibility, the heart no longer fills to the 
breaking - reaction has already set in, a sad unconscious toler- 
ance has been acquired. Thus when I rode into the stricken vil- 
lage of Wha Su Ri the desolation seemed almost to be natural, the 
sight of the burnt houses and the terrorised people had little 
effect upon the emotions, there was nothing new here, the stories 
of brutality and murder were much the same as had been recounted 
in other places the blood thirsty acts of the brutal soldiers 
betray no signs of genious, the same crude acts of barbarity 
having been carried out here as elsewhere . 

THE DEVASTATED VILLAGE. 

Wha Su Hi must have been a picturesque village before the 
barbarious troops of His Majesty' s Government transformed it into 
an ash-heap. The village is surrounded by wooded hills which 
slope toward the valley of fertile paddy fields. In the center 
of the village there had been a Lovely "country residence", which 
hada tiled roof and gateway. Now it ie nothing but a huge heap 
of broken tile, dirt and brick. Some thought that the owner had 
fled, others that he had been imprisoned, but no one really knew 
what had happened to the "aquire" . Out of some forty odd houses 
eighteen remained. No wind had spread the fire, something more 
sure, more definite, more cruel - the hands of Japanese troops 
whose hearts must have been filled with murder. Apart from the 
definite statement of the people to this effect, there was the 
evidence of the burnt houses. In some places burnt and unburnt 
houses alternated. AI30 the space between burnt and unburnt houses 
frequently amounted to some distance. As usual all that remained 
were the earthomware jars U3ed by every Korean household 
to hold pickles and water., groups of such pots and the charred 
ruins of the woodwork, the ashes and debris were the only re- 
mains of the erewhile happy homes. Nothing had been saved from 
the flames, this could not be allowed by the soldiers of Japan. 
The punishment must be complete, A blanket, a sack of rice, a bowlm 
or spoon could not be saved on pain of death, so one feels 
justified in characterising the refugees as absolutely destitute. 
Many of the poor people whose homes had been burnt down had been 
welcomed by more fortunate neighbours to share their comforts of 
bed food and fire, others were living under little straw shelters, 
and for others the Government had provided a home behind the high 
brick wall of some state penetentiary . 

THE STORY OF THE CRIME. 

The story goes back to April 4th. a market day, when villagers 

from all around joined to make merry and to shout "Long Live Korea" . 

They had made their little demonstration onceax or twice in defferent 



S12 

places and nothing untoward had occurred, all had been peace- 
ful so without fear of ill they gathered in front of the local 
police station and gave a hearty "Mansei" for Korea. To their 
great surprise the senior policeman, a Japanese, opened fire with 
a revolver killing one and wounding another^ This was more 
than they cauld stand, surely their act did not warrant such 
drastic and cruel punishment? Being enraged they 
attacked the policeman, and in their anger beat him to death, 
and set fire to the police station. These acts of violence they 
admitted were very unhappy to the Japanese. They had acted in the 
heat of passion which had been aroused by the killing one of 
their number. Nothing happened further until April 11th Then 
early in the morning, sometime before daybreak the villagers were 
suddenly aroused out of their sleep by the sound of firing and 
the smell of burning. Running into the open tbey found soldiers 
and police firing the houses and shooting and beating the people, 
leaving everything they fled for their lives, old and young, the 
mothers with their babies at their breasts, and the fathers 
with the younger children, all of them fled to the hills. But 
before they could make good their escape many were- murdered, 
shot by the soldiers, also many were wounded and beaten, while 
a number were arrested and took to jail. 

It is not a long story but one is made to pause and think and 
to visualize the scene. Think of it occuring in your own home, 
in your own village; picture the darkness, the shooting, the beating, 
the screams of the women and children, the flames and then the 
firing of the soldiers on those trying to escape. 

THE VIL1AGERS. 

Just as I arrived at the village I noticed a young man enter the 
village in a ricksha. He alighted and quickly hobbled over to 
his mother who having been informed of her sons return reshed out 
to greet him. Neither had expected to see the other again, but 
for some*" unknown reason after being soundly beaten he had been 
released. He informed me that after when the village was fired 
by the soldiers he had ran out of the house, but had been immed- 
iately arrested and sent to Suwon, a place some distance away 
where he was held in detention in the prison several days and af- 
ter being beaten several time was released. He must have been 
brutally beaten, for although it had happened several days before 
he could only walk with the greatest difficulty and pain. He 
was no exception, for I saw many other badly bruished people in 
the village. I saw a little ' fellow of about thirteen years of 
age wearning a big number on the front of his blouse which every 
one could see. I asked him why he was so numbered? He replied 
that he had been taken to the prison, beaten, numbered and then 
turned loose. I asked him to let me see his body. Removing his 
clothes he showed me great bruises, yellow, green and black. 
Others so I am told received eighty or ninety cut with a rod, this 
being the usual treatment. It is impossible to ascertain how many 
of the older people have died under these beatings. The boy told 
me that all he had done was to shout "Mansei", for this he had 
been severely beaten and branded as a criminal. I was most 
fortunate at arriving at village during the absence of the 
police and soldiers, for I was thus enabled to secure all the in- 
formation. The people here as elsewhere are living in great 
fear of the return of the soldiers. Suddenly 83 I was talking 



S13 

to them the alarm was given that the police were coming. Immed- 
iately the group of about thirty in number disappeared in fear 
and dread in all directions. It is impossible to describe the 
look of terror on their faces as they ran away. All the villagers 
bad begged me to secure them protection and assistance against 
the soldiery, but in Korea, with it3 military Government what 
protection is it possible to secure for these poor people? 

This closed the interview. Looking at the situation from an 
unbiased point of view, it will strike the ordinary person 
that the Koreans were practically looking for trouble by going 
in front of the police station and shouting "Mansei", no matter 
how peaceful might have been their intentions. According to 
the person interviewed the villagers had no intention of doing any 
more than raising the cry for Korea, and taking this into con- 
sideration, and the fact that all over Korea all their demon- 
strations se& have been peaceful, no excuse can be made for the 
Japanese police man firing on the crowd. The fact of the matter 
is the Japanese are too prone to #se their weapons on the Koreans 
knowing that they have nothing to reply with. In this instance, 
however, the Koreans appeared to have become enranged and took 
the Law into their ovju hands, a thing that cannot be too strongly 
condemned, despite the provacation they had received. But the 
action of the Japanese soldiers coming into the village, firing 
it and shooting down the people was also an action deserving 
of the strongest condemnation. Apparently no attempt was made 
to ascertain who were the Koreans guilty for the original 
crime of killing the Japanese policeman and firing the station. 
A Japanese had been killed and a number of armed soldiers took 
it upon themselves to take revenge on the whole village. That 
there must have been innocent persons in the village there is no 
reason to doubt, and the action of the soldiers in making the 
innocent suffer with guilty is typical of present day hap- 
penings in Korea. The soldiers apparently have the right 
to shoot the Koreans down like rabbits, Law is not recognized 
as law is understood in foreign countries, the military rule 
with a sway unequalled. Every Japanese soldier is a law unto 
himself. The Government provides him with a rifle and ammunition 
and any Korean whom he may think has committed a crime is 
liable to summary punishment at his hands. Ho one will claim 
that these soldiers who are roaming about the country are suf- 
ficiently educated or intelligent to take such responsibility 
upon themselves, and further more under the most rigorous martial 
law and offender is entitled to trial before punishment is in- 
flicted, especially the death penalty. In the burning down 
of these villages, the shooting and burning of the Koreans in a 
church mentioned in a* previous article and the other atrocities 
that 1 have been committed are a disgrace to the Japanese Government 
the authorities in Korea and to nfce army operating in this 
country. The troops have besmirched their military honour and 
sullied their good name. Their actions in Korea will be for 
ever remembered, and Japanese chivalry will be judged by it. No 

One believes for a moment that the ^""P rr<mpn t *-zTitm1ry~fbn-r*MM-r*irmirv*)TMj[ 

of Japan condones such barbarities, but it is the Government's duty tx 
to see that they are not committed. Ignorance of the situation is no 
excuse , it is the Government • s duty to keep informed as to how its wtyr 
representatives are conducting themselves. 



314 

(Extract from The 

Shanghai Gazette THE MORAL FAILURE OP JAPAN 
Mb*. June 5,1919) I» KOREA 

Responsibility of the Japanese Government and Nation. 

By 

AL3ERTUS PIETERS 

The situation in Korea is serious. Serious for the Koreans, it is 
more serious for the Japanese people ad large, and the most serious thing 
for all is that the Japanese, officials and people alike, appear to have 
no idea how serious a matter it really i3. 

Not to deal in any degree with unsupported rumor, let us consider the 
case of the massacre at Suigen (Korean reading Suwon;, of which full and 
well authenticated reports appeared in The Japan Advertiser of April 27 
and 29. In outline, the facts of the case are as follows :- 

Presumahly as the result of local distrubances, the details of which 
have not been made public, a detachment of Japanese soldiers was sent to 
the village of Choamni, near Suigen. No disturbance of the peace existed 
at the time of their arrival, but the men of the village were summoned to 
assemble in the Christian church, which they did, to the number of nearly 
50, all entirely unarmed. What happened is not known in detail, but pre- 
sently these men were all put to death and the building was burned over 
them. 

Upon the facts being reported to the Goveraarxx General by a delega- 
tion of missionaries, he admitted that these things had happened, assured 
his visitors that the persons responsible had been punished, and told X 
them they might rest assured that there would be no recurrence of such 
happenings . 
NOT AN ACT OP WAR 

Notice, please, that this was not an act of war. No state of war 
exists in Korea, or could very well exist, as the people have been comp 
pletely disarmed. Neither was it done by a few rowdy or intoxicated sol- 
diers who had gotten out of hand, but by an organized detachment acting 
under orders of their regular officers. There was no resistance or riot 
to be quelled at the time . There was no judicial investigation of any 
alleged offense, although the courts are fully organized and regularly 
sitting in Korea. It was unprovoked, deliberate, cold blooded-murder, 
for which no sort of mitigation or excuse has been alleged. 

What has been done about it, or is to be done about it? 

A Month has passod since these things were made public and the world 
has been waiting with some impatience for an answer to that question. 
The Governor-General assured the missionaries that the persons responsible 
had been punished. I respectfully submit that this is not sufficient in- 
formation. Who were held responsible, and. what punishmpnt was considered 
appropriate for such a crime'' Has the officer who was in command of that 
detachment been court -martial led and shot? Or was he dnsinissed the 3ervico 
in, disgrace, or suspended on half pay for a month or two, or reprimanded, 
orjs^rely told to be good hereafter? Or has he been "punished'' by being 
promoted to a higher poso? 

The question is a serious one. What in the opinion of the High Com- 
mand of the Japanese army, is a suitable punishment for a crime that has 
caused. the blood to boil in the veins of every decent man tfaat ha^j heard 
of it throughout the world and that in Korea will "stir a fover in the 
blood of age and make the infant's sinews strong as slee] .'• The degree 
of punishment meted out will be a fair index to the views of humanity and' 
decency entertained by the masters of the military machine in Japan and 
the world has a legitimate interest in knowing what these views are ; for 
at the mercy of that machine are some 15 millions in Korea, with ether 
millions in Formosa; and the same machine is to be the Mandatory for cer- 



S15 

tain wards of civlliaa-tion in the "'Pacaf ic, 

Moreoveovrwho are the ^persona "responsible." Primarily^ th^-^ffi^r*^.^ 
in charge or the detachment, to be sure, but is he the only one? What 
is Governor-General Hasegawa' e view of his omjresponsibilrty in this 
matter? He is in absolute command of the military forces of Japan in 
Korea. Hence he is the custodian of the lives of its inhabitants, and of 
the honor of his country and his Sovereign, Only three possible hypo- 
theses present themselves. Either this crime was carried out by his orders, 
or it was contrary to his orders, or he had failed to give such instruc- 
tions to his forces that they could know it was contrary to his will. Let 
us exclude" the first, for to admit it, in the face of hi3 reply to the 
missionaries would make the Governor-General out to be such a monster b 
both of cruelty and of hypocrisy as we refuse to contemplate. If it was 
contrary to his orders, we have a lamentable spectacle of weakness and 
incompetence, for then we much believe that General Hasegawa has his sol- 
diers so poorly under control that his orders are flagrantly disregarded. 
That also is hardly credible. The third hypothesis is most acceptable 
and agrees with his own declaration, for he assures his interviewers that 
nothing of the kind will happen again. He appears quite confident that 
° word from him will effectually put a stop to anything of the kind. 
That is quite as it should be; but then there remains this question: "Why 
was that word not spoken earlier?" The massacre at Suigen took place xjk* 
weeks after trouble began in Korea. Lid it never occur to Gen .Hasegawa 
that his troops might need in struct ion? Was it left to the judgment of 
every corporal or lieutenant in the Japanese army to kill or to save a 
alive at his discretion until this outrage in a belated manner caused it 
to occur to Gen. Hasegawa that they might be instructed not to kill and 
burn indiscriminately? This only remaining theory really doesn't make 
the case much better for the Governor-General of Korea. Nearly 50 men 
are dead near Suigen because the Governor-General of Korea thought too 
late of ordering that they should not be murdered. 
?EEL NO RESPONSIBILITY 

General Hasegawa strangely enough, seems to feel no responsibility, 
Alas, General Nogi was right in saying that the spirit of "Bushido" is 
dead. In the old day's samurai who had so brought disgrace upon his 
lord would have added point to his apology by committing "hara-kiri," 
If General Hasegawa is too modern to aommit suicide (which indeed we do 
not wish him to do) he should at least have informed the delegation that 
waited upon him that he accepted full responsibility for this regrettable 
occurrence and that he had already cabled his resignation to Tokyo. That 
would have been a manly thing to do. Such an action would have been un- 
derstood by every soldier in the Japanese army: and throughout the world. 
It is an inane and contemptible business for the Governor-General to de- 
clare that the "persons responsible* for the Suigen massacre have been 
punished and to ignore his own responsibility. 
NO MORAL COURAGE 

But is there no further responsibility, beyond that of the Governor- 
General? What about the moral responsibility of the Japanese people at 
large? With the deepest concern I have been waiting for the past month, 
as, I am sure, have many other friends of Japan, to see whether there 
might be moral feeling and mnwal courage enough in Japan to find i 
expression in a public protest against this outrage. I have waited in 
vain. The Japanese residents in Korea out-number the foreigners many 
times over, and among them are men of high education and prominent posi- 
tion. The facts were as accessible to them as to the foreigners, but it , 
was left to the latter to wait upon the Governor-Ganeral and protest again- 
st this crime. Why was there no delegation of prominent Japanese doing 
the same thing? 

Tokyo is the nerve-center of the Empire, the home of meetings and 



S16 

demonstrations of ,«v»ry-Jcind . I looked and hoped for some expression 
of indignatix^r rYom the Japaneae-people orginarting there, out nothing 
jjapycaaed; no indignation meeting, no Burning protests in the press, no 
denunciation "by any political party, no evidence of any kind of concern 
for the welfare of the Koreans, for the maintenance of righteousness, or 
for the honor of the Empire. I am reminded forcibly of what a friend 
said to me at the time of the "Conspiracy Case": "The trouble with the 
Japanese is that they lack the capacity for moral indignation at wrongs 
done to others." It really seems so. The "capacity for moral indig- 
nation" is lacking, and hence it is a matter of no concern to the Japan* 
ese, apparently, that unarmed Koreans are shot, bayonted, and burned by 
men in the uniform of the Empire. 

Do not the Japanese people see that such things inevitably affect 
the world's judgment of them? An outrage by Japanese troops, if an is- 
dlated case, promptly disowned and properly puni3hed, would he readily 
forgiven; but not this apathy that gives itself no trouble to protest. 
That becomes a measure of the national character, an index of the fitness 
of the race to associate on equal terms with civilized mankind and to be 
entrusted with the destiny of undeveloped peoples. It has been said that 
in the long run every people has the govdrnment it deserves to have. It 
may equally be said that in the long run every people has the kind of * 
army it deserves to have. Those of us who loved and honored the Germany 
of history strove for a long time to make a distinction betv/een the Ger- 
riianjc people and the German military machine, but the attempt broke down 
in the face of cumulative evidence that the nation approved the doings 
of the army. The German army was what it was and did what it did because 
the German people are what they are and love to have it sol Not in one 
generation or in two will the world be able to look upon the German peo- 
ple with the old respect, The same road is open to the Japanese and 
there is but too much reason to fear they are walking in it. 
SAME APATHY SEVEN YEARS AGO 

The same apathy was observed in connection with the Korean Conspiracy 
Case, seven years ago. The facts were given to the public at the time 
by The Japan Chronicle and The Japan Advertiser, and it was shown that 
that there was no foundation whatever for the charges that there had been 
a conspiracy to assassinate the Governor-General. It was not, indeed, 
a deliberate invention of the Japanese police, but was the produot of 
their incompetence on the one hand and of their criminal disregard of the 
rights of the accused on the other. One hundred and fifty men were arre- 
sted, 123 put on trial, and finally six men were convicted of a crime that 
never took place except in the imagination of the police and law officers. 
Nevertheless, in the course of the investigation, most of the prisoners 
rere tortured with fiendish cruelty, and were forced to confess to false- 
hoods. One or two men were done to death in prison, one or two more were 
driven insane by their sufferings, and others were sent away with scarred 
and broken bodies to their homes. The 'case excited lively intereart all 
over the world— except in Japan. Whoever were concerned over the fate 
of the unhappy men thus unjustly treated, the Japanese were not. The 
deliberate violation of law, the flaunting disregard of elementary justice, 
and the callous contempt for the rights of humanity displayed by the auth- 
orities in Korea in that memorable case excited in England and Amerloa, 
but in Japan there was no voice, nor any that regarded. General Terauohi, 
upon whom rested the ultimate official responsibility, as it rests now 
upon General Hasegawa, was made Prime Minister of Japan, and General 
Akashi, who was directly responsible, as head of the gendarmerie, is now 
Governor-General of Formosa. 

Here lies the serious moral failure of the Japanese people. Crimes 
against humanity have been committed by the military of all countries. 
They stain the record of England and Amerioa as well as the records of 



S17 

other rations. It Is probably impossible to take auch--me-a«ttres as will 
absolutely eliminate them, just as no countrjnoan put a stop absolutely 
_ to other forms of crime. The difference between countries fit to govern 
subject peoples and those unfit lies here; that in the former. these crlme^u. 
arouse stern and fierce indignation, while in the latter they are regard- 
edjwith uneoncern. From the days when Warren Hastings was impeached in 
Parliament for his offenses against the people of India, to the most re- 
cent atrocities alleged against the American troops in the Philippines, 
the people of England and America have felt and discharged their responsi- 
bility to hold their representatives to a strict accountability for what 
they did to the helpless people of districts under military occupation. 
If the Japanese did likewise there would be hope for permanent improvement 
in Korea, but as it is, the question arises whence any improvement is to 
come . 

A Japanese friend of mine, of high ideals and noble activities, said 
to me the other day in despair: "What shocks you in this affair in Korea 
iB but one little symptom of a disease that pervades the entire nation," 
Was he right? 

There is, however, one thing to be said in defense of the Japanese 
people at large, and that is that the press does not give them full in- 
formation. Not long ago a friend of mine overheard a local newspaper 
man say: "Things are pretty had over there in Korea. We have information 
that our troops are killing even women and children, but of course we 
are not going to put that into the papers. "Of course not!" I wonder- 
ed at the time why not, but I learned later that the Government had sent 
out an instruction — not an order, but an urgent request — to the papers 
to publish as little as possible about the Korean affair. So the Govern- 
ment thinks that one of its functions is to keep the people ignorant, and 
takes the ostrich as a model of political wisdom. 
THE WORLD KNOWS 

The result is that the world at large knows what is going on in Japan 
and Korea but the Japanese people do not. Years ago, Dr. Guido E. Verback, 
at one time adviser to the Japanese government, said to me: "You will 
often hear it said by the Japanese that we foreigners cannot understand 
them. The fact is, in many respects, we understand them better than they 
understand themselves." Surely it must be so until the press learns to 
do its duty. Unfounded accusations against the American missionaries in 
Korea and the Americans in the Par East in general are given constant 
publicity as undoubted facts, while well authenticated reports of the 
Suigen massacre suppressed; as if for the Japanese people to be ignorant 
of such things means that the rest of the world does not know them eitherl 
Then, after this folly has borne its legitimate fruit in the estrangement 
of the Chinese and in growing anti-Japanese feeling all over the world, 
the Japanese news-papers naively wonder why the whole world is so unreason- 
able. 

Allow me earnestly to commend this whole situation to the friends of 
Japan the world over and especially to that large and growing class of 
intelligent and patriotic Japanese who read The Japan Advertiser, It is 
not a time for silence, or for soft speeches in praise of what has been 
accomplished along the line of afforestation, road-building, and other 
material interests of the Korean peninsula. How long shall these things 
be held to atone for the denial of elementary justice and for unnumbered 
acts of oppression? The Koreans are men, and must be accorded the elemen- 
tary rights of manhood first, but there is small prospect that they will 
get them from the Japanese government unless an aroused public opinion in 
Japan demands it. I hold it the duty of every intelligent and patriotic 
Japanese to assist in arousing and giving expression to such an enlighten- 
ed public opinion by speaking out. 

"SAY NOT: 'THE DAYS ABE EVIL, WHO'S TO BLAME? • 
AND FOLD THE HANDS AND ACQUIESCE, OH SHAME? 
STAND UP, SPEAK OUT, AND BRAVELY, IN GOD^S NAME." 



KOREAN INDEPENDENCE OUTBREAK 



BE&IIININ& 



ilABCH 1st., 1919. 



PART X. 



DEHON STRAT ION S IB SEOUL & 
OTHER VARIOUS PLACES; THE 
gRIEVAHCES OF THE EOREANS 
UNDER JAPANESE IRON PULE; 
THE TORTURE OP THE GIRLS 
IN PRISON. 



Jl 



STaSUOTT OF WHAT HAPPENED AT FUSANCHIN A?iD FUSAN . 
From the night of Hatch 11th to the evening of karch 15th. 

* 

Knowing something of the distrubancos in other parts, and fear- 
ing that there would he a similar demonstration here, we had warned 
the teachers and cnildren in the dormitory and endeavored to prevent 
their leaving the premisses. In spite of our efforts, however, they 
were so determined to take part in any rising that occured, that on 
the evening of Karch 11th they eluded us at about eight thirty P. Li. 
and were no where to he found. Hiss Menzies, who is in charge of the 
dormitory at once set off to look for them, hut did not succeed in 
finding 'any of the eight (two teachers and six children) who were away. 
Hiss Hocking and I then persuaded Miss Menzies to wait at home while 
we found the children and, if possible, bring them back. At first the 
search along the main road and along other narrow streets was quite 
unsuccessful. . Then wt suddenly heard shouting on the main road, and 
we rushed to the place, to see if we could get our girls away. When 
they saw us coming they ran from us as fast as they could, for they 
knew we had come to try and stop them. The faster they ran the faster 
we ran, and finally we succeeded in grasping two or three. One 
school girl obeyed ae and went to her home, but the others would not 
litten and shook us off. Seeing it was no use trying to stop them, 
Miss Hocking and I then went quietly home. V?e had been back in the 
house some twenty minutes or so, when, six constables appeared and told 
us we must go along with them. They spoke very rudely and pre- 
emptorily. when we reached the main, road where there were about twenty 
others, lights wore flashed in our faces and Tie were stared at 
and Josseled in an. insulting manner. In a few ainutes we were told to ggi 
get into a motor car that had brought some of them from Fusan, and 
we were taken straight to the police station. There we were kept for 
two hours in the main office while individual gendarmes plied us 
with questions, but there was no official investigation. About twelve 
thirty A. M. we were shown into a room, half bedroom, half sitting 
room, and told we would 06 there for the night. We asked that word be 
sent to Miss Menzies as we knew that she expected us back almost 
immediately. She received word indirectly thru a Korean policeman 
that we might be in neod of bedding, and so sent some in. This reach- 
ed us about 3 A.M. and was opened and examined 7/ith queries as to 
whether there were a knife concealed. Tho only things wrapped up in 
the quilt and rugs wore a few oranges in a paper bag. Some of the 
gendarmes at the police station were polite and kindly, and the black 
braided official who questioned and warned us was perfectly court- 
eous . But during the first night we were disturbed at very frequent 
intervals by men coming into the room where we were sleoping and asking 
if we were all right . Our quarters were comfortable but it was 
annoying in the extreme to be so disturbed, especially as we knew it 
was not concern for our comfort but a desire to see if we were there 
and probably also to vex us that prompted the visit. 

Next morning we were told we might order breakfast, but wc 
could not get what wo wanted, the food that was sent being a thick 
slico each of sour bread and a little rancid butter, and over an hour 
later some queer tasting tea. No other food was provided and no in- 
quires were madd ac to whether we required any. So about 3P.M. feel- 
ing faint for lack of it, we asked the constable to have something 
sent to us without delay. The Japanese "cooksu" (vermicelli) which was 
sent in and which as woll as the bread, butter and tea was paid for 
by us, was so unpalatable that I could scarcely eat it. 

As we learned afterward, Mr. Wright had been to the prefect of 



J2 

Fusan, Mr. Wakamatsu, but had teen told 'by him that we were getting 
everything that we required, and could send out for any food we wish- 
ed. He also advised Mr. Wright not to try and see us. 

In the afternoon wo noticed outside a Korean man who is employed 
by our mission and is well known to us. Thinking this would he 
an oppoutunity to send home for toilet necessities and food, we asked 
permission to speak with him. Re were allowed to give him a message 
in the presence of one of the police force who carefully watched him 
aajd us, and noted the list he made at our direction. At nine thirty 
P, M. Mr. Wright arrived with the things we had asked for. The casket 
had been opened hy the authorities, its contents searched, and Mr. St 
Wright was not allowed to speak with us but was hurried out almost 
before we could exchange greetings. After he left we partook of the 
firfet satisfyin3 meal we had eaton that day. 

That night we were left undisturbed. The next morning at ten 
A. M. the black braided official who had questioned us the previous 
day, came in with a Korean interpreter for an interview. The day be- 
fore he had asked me first where the school roll book was, to which I 
answered that it was at our house, where he found it. Second, whether 
I knew of the existence of some Korean flags -'.hat had boon made by 
the school girls. As I had neither seen then nor knew of their being 
made I answered in the negative, as Miss Kockmg did also. "Were 
there not such flags in your house?" was his next inquiry, to which I 
replied that as far as I knew there were not-, as I had not seen thea 
nor heard of their being taken there. These were the only questions 
that were asked us while we were at the police station. 

On Thursday morning, the black braided official simply informed 
us that Korean national fiLigs had been found in our house, told us 
that in view of the alliance between Japan and Britain it was unbe- 
coming for us to be mixed up in an affair of this kind, and would not 
listen to our statement of the truth of the case. He said, howevee 
that we could go home after the chief of police had seon and spoken 
to us. 

We were summoned almost immediately to the office for this inr 
terview, in the course of which we were told that we had done very 
wrongly and that tho we were now being sent home, we were not to 
think that it was because we were guiltless. Were we prepared, he ask- 
ed us, to promise that we would not do such a thing again? As we had 
not done it once, we replied that we could not say we would not do it 
again. Whereupon we were informed that there was positive proof that 
we hadtaken part in the rising, and it was also useless for us to say 
anything to the contrary. With a final warning wo wore then dismiss- 
ed. 

On Friday morning, March 14th, Miss Menzies, Miss Hocking and I 
were called up to tho law courts to undergo a cross examination. For 
an hour and a half I had to answer queries. Those were made by an 
official in Japanese, interpreted into Korean by an other, and my re- 
plies after being interpreted into Japanese were then written down, 
the statement being afterwards submitted to me for approval. The 
points to which I would draw notice are; that I was asked if I had 
given any seditious teaching in the school of which I was principal, 
to which I answered that as the aim of my teaching was that the 
children should become Christian, I had taught nothing in the nature 
of sedition, but at all times encouraged obedience to the laws of the 
Japanese Empire. I was told that this could hardly be true as some 
of my pupils were in jail on account of their sedition, and I was 
further asked if I was not ashamed to see such results of my teach- 



J3 

ing. I replied that I had nothing to he ashamed of. A detailed ac- 
count of the procedure of Miss Hocking and myself on the evening of 
March 11th was added to my evidence, and I was then dismissed and 
Miss Hocking summoned. 

The following day (Saturday) Miss McCague was told to come to 
the law courts, and as she has only been in the country since last 
September and can not yet speak Korean, I wont with her to act as in- 
terpreter, my Korean being again turned, into Japanese by one of the 
officials. On our return, about 4:45 P.M. we found that Miss Hocking 
and I had been summoned to the local (Fusanchin) police station, and 
that Miss Hocking had already been there about two hours. I had to 
spend about an hour there answering a number of questions about oc- 
curance3 on March 11th, many of them practically the same as I had 
already answered at the law court but to a different set of officials 
and with some twelve gendarmes standing around listening. 

What has aroused my indignation more than anything else in the 
treatment we have received has been the suspicion with which we are 
looked upon and the way in which .>our simpliest statements are receiv- 
ed as unworthy of credence . 

(Signed) Margaret 3. Davies. 

Fusanchin, Korea, March 17th, 1919. 

THE DISTURBANCES IN EOBEA. 
Seoul, Korea, March 24th. Korea at the present time would be a fer- 
til field for another Viscount Bryce investigating committee. Because 
the stirings of the prosent age have reached Korean and have roused her 
people to domand freedom, the Japanese military system has since the 1st 
of March exhibited all the characteristics of the Prussian machine which 
was recently crushed in Europe. Many of the atrosities perpertrated in 
Belgium have been duplicated in Korea. According to one newspaper, six 
thousand Koreans are now in jails and prisons and this is probably be- 
low the actual number. The movement for freedom is country wide; its 
propagandists causi conclude Christians, members of the reformed native m 
cult, the Chuntokyo; and Buddhists. Students of the Government schools 
are equally involved with those of Mission schools. And in the name of 
"law" and "order" countless offences against humanity are daily being 
committed . 

THE JiiPAHESi COLONIAL SYSTEM 

Japan established a protectorate over Korea in 1908, and in 1910 
formally annexed the country. Prior to the annexation, the administrat- 
ive system was chaotic. By stern enforcement the Japanese havd intro- 
duced quiet and order, have commenced to exploit the natural resources 
of the country, set up a judiciary, develope the beginnings of an edu- 
cational system, improved communications, and cultivated hygiene. There 
is no denying the fact that many reforms have been brought about under 
Japanese auspices. But the methods in governing Korea have not won the 
hearts of the people. The genius of the Japanese people is attracted by 
systems which are autocratic. Their police system is German to the cors; 
and in their colonial government they have taken the Prussian rather 
than the British method as their modle . The sword is the emblsm of author- 
ity. Not only is it carried by the military, gendarmirie and police, 
but by the civilian members of the civil service. Every male school 
teacher were a sword: in fact, almost every one who holds a government 
office carries a sword as the symbol of his authority. To bolster up 
the militaristic system, a vast system of espionage exists. Consequently, 
there is no freedom of assembly, no free speech, no freedom of the press. 



J4 

^13 er V S .,? * i § )lt of P ettion ° f greviances without immunity from 

L Needless to say there is no participation in self government. Of 
t n h f tillage head-man must he a Japanese, and his principle 
duty is to collect taxes. In the law courts it is Alleged that a Korean 
^♦ n0 fc Cha ^° ln t Suit witn a ^panese. Habeas Corpus is unknown. The^ 
state has the right to keep the prisoner for two weeks before producing 

davs P an/??r' ^V f " de f ires . ^ ^ans of securing extfntions If 
to do It Shi eSd n0t P roduoe a Prisoner in practisf until it chooses 

to do so. The prisoner is not allowed to consult a lawyer or to see hi* 

iSSfr T ° rtU f e H f3 T ly a ^ lied ' and a maa cons?dlred g^iUy u^til 
proved innocent neither is the Korean permitted to enjoy many offices 

«Lla^ en i„r d h r tJlS e°I oriUBeat - Thwre are some Korean po?!c^ and 
f«^^ w I - here are / ew Koreans in other departments of the civil 
service. Korea is a paradise for the Japanese job-hunter. Efforts have 
teen made by government officials to deprave the youth of Korea Com! 
*?2l la £"?£ P rost " uti011 iB flourishing and is extending from ?ne cap! 

ital to the country parts. A manifesto describing the grievances of th« 
people has been issued by the Independence Committee, and 11 11 follows 
{See Appendix I.) Another grievance which strikes deeply to the heart 
at lit lZ° &n , 18 the d0 *«»Huotion of the Japanese to drive out tSe ^e 
of the Korean language from the schools. The proclamation which provides 
force Z ltll X \ll ? e th ° S 2 le ° f instruction comes St o ^* 

fn^5 ?k2*t ° SS S? 0f polarid ^ otner countries seems to be 

aZ$1£1 ?>, I ^P^ese. Then there seems to be an organized attempt to 
w Lr , r i™"^ 3 " 1 ^ the f ou ^ ora Part of the peninsula- which is the 

P £™ I: ? x to ! lr land a 112 t0 f °rce them to emigrate to Man- 
ually at fZ/ S l V t Up ° a the Korcac land holder of ^arm tenant to sell, 
usually at a disadvantageous price, and he and his family go north to 

fS^t^? h ° me - .^P^ese settlers replace the Korean. This policy is 
fostered by a semi-official company called the Oriental Development Com- 
pany whicn receives the valuable concessions from the government?? a 
veteran missionary summed up the situation trenchantly the other day in 
^ a W0 ^; "F 11 ^ ^at.huilds railroads, constructs roads, ,ro£o?£ edu- 
cation, understands nygiene, is none the less &erman.» 

JAPAIIESE EEFOHta TEHDSBCI20. 
iw,*;? ? W ?K d ' tG e w Hole system of government thru out the Japanese 
S 7, ? ^ 6 am 0f the aovenanent is dominated by 

was succeeSd bv 5L?S? ^ b ^aucratic ministry of Count Terauchl 
was succeeded by thetof of Mr. Hara. The new ministry was acclaimed bv th« 
£H™ ?? eSS t 3 ^ e fi f st dea °«atic government that jlpan hafhad! 7 
™t* ~ ^ 5 Mts " ™ uld seem t0 Reserve the title. Shortly after the 
££f S d >. 0a fv. 0f ^ e Bew Asters replied to a question inauirfng 
SSJ ™!v ^\ C 2i 0nia3 - polic y of the ^w ministry that the govefn- 
5£f« ; T ^- ed that ^ ey C0l:lld cot ^ntinue to rule the colonies^y S- 
perial ordinances, but that new methods were under consideration The 
minister could not say when they would go into effect? Later Press re 

UllTlL^ t0 reV6 ^ an intsmal 8t ^gSle in the gove^tfthe 
villi element apparently wishing to replace the military government of 
tralaformatior ^ admi n^ration, an! the militarists^^ aVsuch 

9™?* 10a %-, At the P^sent moment, the militarist element is voci-?.r- 
Sn of i?s llllrl^ 3 * t h ft ^ 12 ^P°^ibly for Japan to ratifV ?he 
S aelegates at the Peace Conference in reSard to the abo- 

]™™«*S Z n ^ TX ? tX ? n - This by tne wa y- On March 1st, a monstlr popular 
lemonstratiisn took place in Tokyo demanding manhood suff rage • and the 

wh^h^^ 17 a /ST dayS later introduced In electoral relfrm Sill * 
3™?* ^ S Pa83 ?^ th l P°P^ar house greatly extending the franchise It 
of^lS ™ftw ' de * oc f ac r ^ sl °"^ gaining i^thehearf 

?es from^that'end! h ° P6S ° f S bri Sn ter d ay for the colon- 



J5 

THE SEHISIS OF THL KOHEAB IHBEP3HDEHT .iOVEuBKT. 

Meanwhile a series of happenings combined to precipitate a crisis 
in Korea. The first of these was the Peace Conference and the dissemin- 
ation of the doctrine of self determination of races. The fallowing 
story was told to a representative group of missionaries fcy the Minister 
of Internal Affairs of the Bovernment General of Chosen. He stated that 
the government had information that a Korean had interviewed president 
Wilson before he left for Paris, and asked the President if he would 
bring up the question of Eorea at the Conference. The President replied 
it is alleged, that the conference could only doal with countries which 
were affected by the War, and that the question of a country at peace as 
Korea was could not be properly raised. The interviewerethen asked if 
it could be unmistakably shown that the Koreans were dissatisfied would 
the case ol Eorea then be discussed at the Peace Conference? To which 
the President is reported to have said that in that case it might be. 
According to information from other sourc-es, it seems that this is quite 
a likely story. There are many Koreans in the western States, in Hawaii, 
Siberia and China, and thru out all these centers of Korean population 
the movement for independence rapidly spread. 

The proceedings at the Peace Conference formed another link in the 
chain of events. The League of Nations, the gospel of the right of small 
nations of self determination, the reviving of oppressed nations set free 
by the War, all firod the imagination of the educated Koreans. 

Then, an event nearer home occured to bring out national feeling. 
On January 20th, the ex-Emperor of Korea died, just on the eve of the 
marriage of his son th a Japanese Princess. It was officially reported 
that the ex-Htaperor ' s death was due to apoplexy. But rumors got into 
circulation that his death was due to either suicide or poisoning. Ife 
was claimed that he had refused to sign a paper which stated that the 
Koreans were contented under Japanese rule and was made away with because 
he had refused to do so. It has been officially denied that any such 
paper was ever presented to the ex- ruler. The ne-ws of the ex-Emperors 
death was suppressed for several days. 

Arrangements were made for the funeral . The Diet at Tokyo adjourned 
out of respect, after voting Yen 100,000 towards the funeral expenses. 
The condort of the ex-Emperor, who had beon assassinated in 1804, was 
buried not far out of the East Gate of Seoul. It had been decided that 
the king should be buried about cx& seventeen miles from the city, and in 
accordance with Korean custome it was necessary to bury the queen by his 
side. Consequently, the body of the queen was disintered, and on Feb. 
12th the reburial cerimonies were began and carried thru with great pomp, 
all of the expenses being borne by the Koreans. These events brouj^h 1 - 
back to the Koreans in a poigant way the remembeauce of their national 
humiliation. March 3rd was set for the date for the ex-Emperor's funeral 
and it had been arranged that the ceremonies inside the city should be 
Japanese and outside Korean. Heedless to say the arrangements for the 
Japanese part of the ceremony were not made with the hearty concurrence 
of the Koreans. 

DEMONSTRATION BSGIK . 

The atmosphere was becoming intense . Evidently the authorities had 
an inkling that something was brewing, for the principals of schools 
were called before the prefect at the City Hall, and told to warn their 
students not to be led away by the action of the Korean students in Jap- 
an. It should be stated here that during February the Korean students 
who were attending the various colleges in Japan had started a movement 
for the self determination of Korea, and had been imprisoned extensively. 

On Saturday, March 1st, notices were posted on the streets that pul»- 



J6 

lie gathering would be hold at Pagoda Park, and the urinted protOaimation 
of independence, signed by 33 representative Koreans" was distributed. 
Shortly after noon, a large number of the signers of this manifesto met 
at a Korean restaurant, and telephoned to the authorities that they 
had declared the independence of the country announcing where they were. 
The authorities thereupon sent and arrested them. The police published 
in the newspapers that they had surrounded the ring-leaders in an eating 
house aa they wore drinking success to their plot. (For manifesto, see 
exhibit II.) 

Meanwhile, the people, including many students, had gathered at the 
park, and from there started to parade some of the principle streets. 
They walked dlong in an orderly way, with hands raised aloft, calligg 
their national cry of "Hansoi", which means "Ten thousand" "years." In 
front of public buildings, such as police headquarters, and the various 
Consulates they would atop and take off their hats and wave them, utter- 
ing their cry of Mansei, At the Consulates they sent in letters and 
their proclaimation manifesto. Ho single act of violence wad done. At 
one point, mounted gendarmes charged the crowd and inflicted some saber 
cuts. The police were arresting as many as they could, and all the even- 
ing and the following day, Sunday, men were being arrested at their homes 
on suspicion of having been connected with the demonstration. Of the 33 
signers, 15 were members of the native cult, the Chuntokyo; 15 were Christ- 
ians; and 3 were Buddhists. Of the Christians they majority were ministers 
of the various city churches, all college trained men; one was a Y.M.C.A. 
secretary, another was connected with the Severance Hospital. Since that 
day arrests have been made daily, until at present there- is scarcely a 
city church which has not its minister locked up. 

On Sunday, March 2nd, no demonstration occured in Seoul. The follow- 
ing day was the ex-Sing's funeral. The schools had been alocated definite 
sections along the line of march for the Japanese ceremonies. Hot one of 
the higher schools, government, private or mission, was represented by any 
but the members of the faculties. The students cut the ceremony dead. 
Tiie funeral was a military spectacle. The first section, which consisted 
of naval and military detatchments, took 18 minutes to pass a given point. 
The second section which took in the Shinto priests, the bier, and the 
governmental representatives and functionaries, was not so large; and the 
ihird section was a line of troops and sailors almost as long as the 
first. The following day was quiet in Seoul, the Korean ceremony taking 
place outside of the city. These two days were school holidays. The next 
day, March 5th, not a single student in the higher schools was in his 
place, and rumors began to come to the heads of the schools that there 
would be no more students until the country had got its independence. The 
threat has been made good, for not a higher school has opened up since 
that time, nearly a month ago. 

On Wednesday, March 5th, at the stroke of nine in the» morning a com- 
motion was heard on the main street in front of the railroad station. 

Young men were swarming out of stores and alleys and making toward the 
railroad station, calling out their national cry. In a remarkable brief 
time, a man in a rickashaw started up the street towards the South &ate 
surrounded by the throng, who with up lifted arms, carrying red bands, ran 
thru the gate and into the old city toward the palace . This demonstra- 
tion was composed almost entirely of students, and as it proceeded was 
joined by high school girls. The police had been apparently taken by 
surprise, for the demonstrators had run about half a mile before they 
were opposed by the police. In the aarge open space in front of the 
palace the police were drawn up, and charged the crowd with sabers. Many 
wounds were inflicted. No reppect was shown to sex, girls being handled 
roughly and beaten. Hundreds of arrests were made, including a number of 
school girls. No violence was attempted by the students. Their object 
apparently was merely to demonstrate and they considered it an honor 
to be arrested for their country. Nearly all of the tupil nurses at Se»- 



J7 

erance Hospital rushed out when the crowd passed up the street. Thay 
were carrying bandages and wore prepared to do Hod Cross wsrk if re- 
quired. 15 were arrested and were held in the police station untill the 
afternoon. They were questioned closoly as to whether the heads of their 
institution (the missionaries) had ordered them out. In the later part of 
the afternoon theywere all released, each girl being cuffed on the head 
by police officials as she passed out. The younger high school girls 
who were taken did not far* so well. Most were kept on custody, and more 
will he told of their sufferings in the jails later. 

Various demonstrations occured. The street railway employees struck 
for several days as a protest. They Korean shop keepers put up their 
shutters, and have remained closed for over three weeks. The literatti 
prepared a petition (See Appendix III) sending it to the office 
of the Governor General hy the hands of a Christian preacher and a non- 
Christian. At the office of the Governor they were told that such docu- 
ments should be delivered to the police department. To the police accord- 
ingly they went, and were immediately arrested. It should he noted that 
the independence manifesto and the petition of the litteratti are both 
couched in stately phraseology and breath a spirit of charity towards 
those who have inflicted on the Korean nation a mental "Reign of terror." 

DKMOHSTRAT IOHS OUTSIDE THE CAPITAL. 

Synchronizing with the outbreaks at Seoul, demonstrations of a sim- 
ilar nature occured at the leading centers thru the country. Again, thev 
were orderly. But the minions of the law at the outside centers; where 
there wefe fewer foreign eyes to see what took place, behaved in many 
places with the utmost ferocity. The crowds were fired on, and deaths oc- 
oure 5f'^ Two case3 of shot wound were sent in from a point in the 
north to Severance Hospital. At Pyengyang, a large center, the missionar- 
«£L;T£??i *£ B f fcow 5 c were att£iCi: ed by the members of the fire brigade 

armed with their hooks which are used to pull the burning thatch off 
the houses. Many ugly wounds were inflicted. Five men died in a hospital 
from gun shot wounds, but the authorities are- reported to have issued 
orders that the deaths must not be reported as due to that cause. In the 
north the authorities seem to have decidod to penilize the Christian 
population, and churches have been wantomly destroyed. In some cases, the 
police have questioned demonstrators and have arrested only those who 
admitted being Christians. An attempt was made to get twenty four weal- 
thy* Koreans to sign a statement which said that tho 33 signers were low 
class people. They refused to do so, and pressure was brought upon them 
for several days before the attempt was given up. It should be said here 
to make this point clear, that wealthy men are compelled to submit to 
periodical police audits of their private finances. There is no half 
way government in Korea. 

In Hamheung, a point on the east coast, where the Canadian Presbyter- 
ians have a mission station, scenes similar to those in Pyongyang were 
enacted. The f<jre brigade and coolies armed with clubs perpetrated out- 
rages on the people. An eye-witness statement of the Rev. G.M.McRae fol- 
lows(see Appendix IV). Here the authorities refused to let those in- 
jured be treated in the mission hospital . Mr. McHae had occasion to go 
to the police stations during the demonstrations, and saw in a tent tho 
rire brigade, with their hook -poles in hand, and coolies armed with clubs, 
waiting ror the signal to leave the police compound to attack the crowd ' 
The conclusion is irreststable that these men were under the order of 
tne police. An attempt was made by the chief of police to intimidate 

= J 6 ^. 61 " 3 ,^ saying their lives were in danger from the non-Christ- 
ie' -i a M °?? e ^ efused t0 *e fluffed, and told the chief that he would 
be held responsible for any harm that befell the foreigners. 



je 

It is not possible to record at this time all the details of the 
uprisings in various places. These are fair samples of what occured 
thru out the country. The truth will eventually come out as to what hap- 
pened in places where no foreigners were present to record what trans- 
pired. 

In the official reports, particularly those which came out in the 
early stages, the missionaries were accused as 'being the instigators of 
the movement, and capital was made out of the fact that so many Christ- 
ians were concerned in it . Bvery effort was made to minimise the part 
played by other sections of the population. The police reporters played 
up the Christian schools and glossed over the facts m regard to the 
participation of the government school students and the Buddhists. At 
the demand of the American Consul, official statements have since appear- 
ed that the Government discredits the stories of missionary instigation, 
hut the police reports in the vernacular press still continue to cast 
slurs. (See Appendix V for typical editorial.) 

POLICE ATBOCITIES. 

Beating and torture are the cardinal principles of police methods 
in Koeea. When malting arrests, usually the victim is cuffed and kicked 
by several policemen. In the demonstration on March 5th, a student 
noticed that the girl he was engaged to was being attacked hy several 
policemen. He went to her rescue, and was at once set upon by several 
policemen and severely beaten. He was arrested and has not yet been re- 
leased; having now been in custody ah out three weeks. Instances are no$ 
infrequent where Japanese in civilian clothes have arrested demonstrators 
in the presence of the police having treated them shamefully. Stories 
of this kind come from Pyengyaug and other points as well as Seoul. 

From released prisoners stories of cruelity and torture are now 
pouring out. One student was asked to tell who the leaders were, and his 
finger nails were pushed back from the skin to assist his memory. An- 
other had his finger tips burned for the same purpose. Still another 
prisoner mas put in an upright press, which operated with a screw from 
the back. When the screw is turned the four sides contract, and while the 
pressure becomes stronger the iha questioning is carried on — a way of 
squeezing out information. After being subjected to this torture, the same 
man had a strong cord tied around his middle finger of his right hand, and 
the cord was then passed thru a hook in the ceiling, and his body was 
pulled up until he wa3 resting on the tip of his toes. He became insen- 
sible during the process and when he awoke he found himself lying down 
while sizcKK salve was being applied to his wounds. He left the jail with a. 
swollen hand, which had to be lanced subquontly to let the blo&d out. 

The girls fared even worse. For the .first few days after being ar- 
rested they were confined in the several police stations. As far as can 
be assertained, no matrons were on duty in these jails. Of course, the 
girls were not allowed to communicate with re -litiwee or friends. The 
main facte in the story of one released girl are as follows: A few hours 
after being arrested she was brought before an officer, questioned, and 
beaten by him on the face, shoulders and legs. The following day the 
same process was repeated before a second officer. The third day she 
was taken before another officer, who called her vile names, and insinu- 
ate, that she and the other girl prisoners were pregnant. "You can cut us 
open and see", she retorted. He then said that the Bible taught that sin- 
less people were naked (some course reference to Adam and Bve being in- 
tended) and ordered her to disrobe . She cried and he did not press his 
demand. She was again beaten, and on the fourth day before still another 
officer she was questioned and beaten again. One of her ordeals was to 



J9 

kneel down on the floor and hold a heavy board at arms length for an 
hour. If her arm trembled she was beaten again. The girls were always 
accompanied to the toilet under guard. On the 5th day she was removed 
to the West Gate Prison. She and two other girls were summoned to an of- 
ficer's desk. She was told to wait outside while her two companions went 
in. A little later she saw them pass out, stark naked, with hair down 
their backs, holding their clothes in a bundle before them. She was then 
called in, and found two Japanese matrons present with the officer. After 
being questioned by the officer, she was ordered by the matron to take 
off her clothes. After ^resisting for a time, and being threatened, she 
did so. Her hair had first been taken down by the matrons. There was no 
apparent purpose in this request except to humiliate her. After stand- 
ing several minutes disrobed, she was told to follow one of the matrons. 
She trapped her skirt about her, and carrying the rest of her clothing 
walked thru a hall to her cell where she found two other girls. On the 
way thither she passed several men employees of the prison. The follow- 
ing day she was taken out by a matron, and taken to a room where a very 
youthful Japanese doctor was waiting. Again she was ordered to disrobe 
for a physical examination. After a long altercation, she was permitted 
to retain one garment. The doctor tapped her chost, asked no questions 
whatever about her health, and she was in due course taken back to her 
cell. Several days later, a gold braided official came into her cell, s 
asked her to remove her waist, examined her back and chest, and left the 
cell. Shortly after this she and a few other girls were released. They 
were handed over to re, .litives or school principals who had been notified 
to be in attendance. Thoy were constantly guarded while in the cells, were 
not allowed to talk, had to reaain in a very irksome squatting position 
all day, and were beaten if they changed their position. They were allow- 
ed 15 minutes open air walking daily after breakfast. 

When stories of torture and cruelity to prisoners became current 
among the missionary community the Seoul Press ran a couple of editor- 
ial articles pointing out that the Koreans were "atrocious liars* and 
that the stories of cruelity had been investigated and the prison sup- 
erintendant assured them that no tortures were taking place. When a 
missionary showed this article to a Japanese, he naively replied that it 
wa3 intended to mean that there had been no tortures since they had been 
sent to a certain prison, Another foreigner discussed the editorial with 
the editor of the paper, who replied that in making the statement he was 
"Speaking officially." 

INDIGNITIES TO MISSIONARIES. 

The mission body has not escaped unscathed. At Pyongyang, two ladies 
were prodded with rifle butts as they walked alon^ the street. Two male 
missionaries were arrested there, while trying to protect by their pres- 
ence only a body of native women whom the police were trying to arre3t. 
After being marched thru the streets and guarded by soldiers and a stay 
of a few minutes in the police station thoy were released. One of these 
was Rev. Stacy I». Roberts and the other Rev. E. W. Twinh, of Peking, whoss 
work in anti-opium movements has made him an international figure. In 
south Korea, two ladies of the Autralian Mission were arrested and sub- 
sequently released. On March 20th Rev. John Thomas, a missionary of tho 
Oriental Missionary Society, was attacked by soldiers at Eokei and Bever- 
ly beaten. When he produced bis ftTitara British passport it was thrown on 
the ground and stamped on, as was also a preafihing permit which had been 
given him by the authorities. All of these cases involved ooncular act- 
ion which was promptly taken. At Syenchun the homos of the missionaries 
shortly after the demonstrations began were searched. On March l?th o 
body of police led by a procurator came to the Severance Union Medical 
College, placed guards at all the gates and at intervals thru the com- 



J10 

pound and searched the various 'buildings of the institution. As already 
stated in connection with the Hsmheung incidents the authorities have 
tried to get rid of their responsibilities of the protection of foreign- 
ers. Bumor has it that a certain Consul was asked to warn his nationals 
to keep off the streets as they could not guarantee to protect them and 
the Consul is said to have replied that he would issue no such warning 
and would hold the authorities responsible in case any foreigner was 
molested . Several days ago the leading newspaper in Seoul in an inspir- 
ed editorial invited the missionaries to confer with the authorities 
as to the best means of bringing the trouble to a close, and the sugges- 
tions of the missionary body have been invited by some representative 
Japaaeso. That is the status of the natter at this moment. 

On Saturday, March 22nd, another street demonstration took place in 
Seoul. It was quickly headed off, and a number of arrests we*s made. On 
the following evening, demonstrations broke out simultaneously in several 
parts of the city. At East Gate bayonets were freely used and many were 
wounded. There are persistant reports that a number of deaths occured. 
They city is being patroled by soldiers, and is virtually under martial 
law. It has been so since March 1st. 

What the out come will be it is too oarly to prophesy at this stage. 
Yfhether the Koreans will veaken in their stand for complete independence 
or pursue their policy of passive resistance until the end, or whether 
they will accept a program of fundiriental reforms cannot be foretold. 
The revelation of the organizing ability shown in the movement thus far 
is a surprise and admiration of all who know the Eoreans; it is a verit- 
able renaissance. There are many Japanese who realize that their method 
9"'ncele%yale8dm6aSs6faTj*QBgnageaTffautefJ SappfexcJenaSifeiamenaapandswiysare 
01* colonial administration have failed to achieve their end, and who are 
sincerely desirous of bringing about a happier condition. Japan's tasf. sys- 
tem has been wrong: It was a German colonial policy not a British one; it 
ha3 been an effort to exploit a people and benefit them at the same time. 
It has b&3n an endeavor to impose a "Kulture" against the desires of a 
people with a culture of its own. In the meantime, whatever the outcome 
publicity will help both Korea and Japan in their assent to a higher 
plane of civilization. 

(H.T.Owens, Severance Union Medical College, 
Seoul, Korea, March Zith, 1919)